Flashcards in THINGS SHE STRESSED PT 1 -From Steve's Study Guide (Lectures 2/13 & 2/20) Deck (87)
radioactive substances injected into bloodstream used to trace the patterns of blood flow in the heart – assesses the adequacy of blood flow to the cardiac tissues can identify cold spots decreased perfusion
will give you information about pressures /volume go through the femoral vein and lodge in pulmonary artery can give you information about pressure within rt atrium, CVP, right ventricular pressure, left atrial pressure .
right cardiac catheterization
do to evaluate if they have atherosclerotic plaque / blockages in coronary arteries. Would insert femoral artery lodge in coronary sinus and dye is injected.
left cardiac catheterization
Who would go for right cardiac catheterization
someone with heart failure
When would you do a left cardiac catheterization
someone presents with chest pain and positive enzyme test
_____can assess: Cardiomegaly, ventricular hypertrophy, valvular disorders, incompetence, stenosis, collections of fluid can, left ventricular function
Which of the following is the preferred test for measuring ejection fraction?
inability to have sufficient CO to meet the metabolic demands of tissues and organs
PINK FROTHY SPUTUM
The sound of excess volume, a ventricular gallop
sound of ventricles when blood is trying to enter the stiff noncompliant L ventricle – an atrial gallop, ‘Tennessee’ tachycardia
LESS INVASIVE Echocardiogram, will give you info about whether there’s a dissection will give info volume of blood in heart, how much blood loss is occurring, valvular status, info about EF, info about blood clotting in any chambers of heart
you see a widening of the _______ with aortic dissection
People with ejection fraction under 30% get a ____
ICD – internal cardioverter defibrillator
EF <40% but can walk two flights of stairs or two blocks and does not get SOB,
NYHA Class 1
2 flights of stairs, 2 city blocks SOB and have to stop
NYHA Class 2
Shaving, combing hair and causing SOB – minimal exertion
NYHA Class 3
Dyspnea at rest
NYHA Class 4
the patient has S/S of venous congestion, manifested as Edema, fluid can exit to the peritoneal cavity they can have a condition where the abdomen fills up with fluid (ascites), JVD_________
Backwards effects of R heart failure due to congestion of venous system
Management is aimed at stopping SNS activation, meds used: ______ to block norepinephrine and epinephrine for stopping systolic heart failure.
Identified by EF of 40% or less
MI and ischemia common etiologies of __________
reduced inotropy during ventricular systole
Due to low output state of LV, a sympathetic response b/c tissue is not being perfused will be the release of neurohormone ________ but ultimately this re-arranges the tissue which is termed _________
norepinephrine; ventricular remodeling
Heart Failure with preserved ejection fraction “the heart has problem relaxing” a sign of what kind of dysfunction?
Low cardiac output, congestion, and edema formation with normal ejection fraction. It’s a Lusotropic problem. The ventricles are stiff and don’t relax properly.