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Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (49)
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1

Most common primary diagnosis in the United States.
Responsible for an annual worldwide death rate of 7 million

Hypertension

2

What 4 things can hypertension lead to in terms of morbidity/mortality?

Increases morbidity and mortality associated with heart disease, kidney disease, peripheral vascular disease, and stroke

3

_______is a range of pressures between normal and stage 1 hypertension in an effort to initiate interventions early enough to prevent or deter progression of the disease process

Prehypertension

4

Determined by the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure

Hypertension

5

What are the ranges for hypertension in terms of normal, prehypertension, stage 1 and stage 2?

Normal: SBP <120; DBP <80
Prehypertension: SBP 120-139 ;DBP 80-89
Type 1: SBP 140-159; DBP 90-99
Type 2: SBP > 160; DBP >100

6

Primary hypertension is also called ______hypertension, is an _______ disorder, and most ______form of hypertension

essential; idiopathic; common

7

In primary hypertension, it is rare prior to the age of ____ and _______ is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease

10; systolic BP

8

What are the 3 subtypes of primary hypertension?

isolated systolic
isolated diastolic
combined systolic and diastolic hypertension

9

systolic BP is ≥140 mm Hg while diastolic pressure remains <90 mm Hg

isolated systolic hypertension

10

diastolic pressure is ≥90 mm Hg with a systolic pressure of <140 mm Hg

isolated diastolic hypertension

11

both systolic and diastolic exceed prehypertension levels

combined systolic and diastolic hypertension

12

What are some non modifiable risk factors for primary hypertension?

Family history
Age
Ethnicity/Genetics

13

What are some modifiable risk factors for primary hypertension?

Dietary factors
Sedentary lifestyle
Obesity/weight gain
Metabolic syndrome
Elevated blood glucose levels/diabetes
Elevated total cholesterol
Alcohol and smoking

14

For primary hypertension, what are some risk factors to children and adolescents? What seems to reduce these risks?

Maternal smoking
Pregnancy induced hypertension
Dietary habits
Low birth rate followed by rapid growth in both height and weight
Lower socioeconomic level of mother
Inadequate intake of calcium by pregnant mother

Breastfeeding seems to reduce risks

15

Sometimes called the “silent killer” as damage has already occurred to organs before diagnosis is made

Primary Hypertension

16

In primary hypertension, outcomes include ______ damage

end organ

17

_____ failure, ____, heart disease outcomes of primary hypertension

renal, stroke

18

Damage to _____system and acceleration of ______lead to cardiovascular disease in primary hypertension

arterial; atherosclerosis

19

Increased myocardial work results in heart failure
in ________ hypertension

primary

20

Glomerular damage results in kidney failure in ______ hypertension

primary

21

Primary hypertension affects microcirculation of the _____

eyes

22

Increased pressure in ____ vasculature can result in hemorrhage in _______ hypertension

cerebral; primary

23

What is the primary treatment strategy for primary hypertension?

Lifestyle modifications are first and most important prevention and treatment strategy

24

Name some lifestyle modifications for primary hypertension

Weight loss
Exercise
DASH diet
Alcohol moderation
Decreased sodium intake

25

Drug therapy for hypertension affects ____ rate, ____, and/or stroke volume

heart, SVR

26

In ______ hypertension, it is attributed to a specific identifiable pathology or condition

secondary

27

Most common form of ______ hypertension is in infants and preschool children

secondary

28

Most common cause for childhood secondary hypertension is ______

renal disease and coarctation of the aorta

29

obstructive sleep apnea is another cause of ______ hypertension in children

secondary

30

Adult secondary hypertension may be related to
_______stenosis

renal artery