Cardiac Alterations-Up two Slide 43 Flashcards Preview

PATHO EXAM 2 > Cardiac Alterations-Up two Slide 43 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Alterations-Up two Slide 43 Deck (104)
Loading flashcards...
1

Also called ischemic heart disease and coronary artery disease (CAD)

Coronary heart disease (CHD)

2

Characterized by insufficient delivery of oxygenated blood to the myocardium due to atherosclerotic coronary arteries (CAD)

Coronary Heart disease

3

Name up to 5 sequelae of CHD

Angina pectoris
Myocardial infarction
Dysrhythmias
Heart failure
Sudden cardiac death

4

A known risk factor for CHD is _______

atherosclerosis/microcirculation abnormalities

5

Atherosclerosis causes narrowing of the arterial lumen that can lead to cardiac ischemia through (3)_______

Thrombus formation
Coronary vasospasm
Endothelial cell dysfunction

6

In coronary atherosclerosis, lipids are transported via ________

apoproteins

7

_________associated with a greater risk of atherosclerosis

Lipoproteins

8

High-density lipoproteins transport cholesterol from _________ back to the ______ clearing atheromatous plaque

peripheral tissue; liver

9

Atherosclerotic plaque formation initiated by injury to coronary artery ________

endothelium

10

In coronary atherosclerosis, the_______ becomes permeable and recruits leukocytes

endothelium

11

_______ occurs with oxidation by endothelial cells and macrophages in coronary atherosclerosis

LDL insudation (accumulation)

12

________are damaging to endothelial and smooth muscle cells, and stimulate recruitment of ______ into the vessel in coronary atherosclerosis

oxidized lipids; macrophages

13

In coronary atherosclerosis, ______ engulf the lipids; ______ (lipid-filled macrophages) release inflammatory mediators and growth factors, attracting more leukocytes and stimulating _____proliferation

macrophages; foam cells; smooth muscle

14

Excess ____and _____ accumulate within vessel wall and coalesce into lipid core in coronary atherosclerosis

lipid, debris

15

Vulnerable plaques may rupture or become eroded, which stimulates clot formation on the plaque in ________

coronary atherosclerosis

16

Vulnerable plaques have (3)________

Large lipid core
Thin cap
High shear stress

17

Stable plaques have (2)______

More collagen and fibrin
Stable cap

18

There is increased plaque ________ in coronary atherosclerosis

vulnerability

19

Name 5 signs of plaque vulnerability in coronary atherosclerosis

Active inflammation within the plaque
Large lipid core with a thin cap
Endothelial denudation (erosion) with superficial platelet adherence
Fissured or ruptured cap
Severe stenosis predisposing to high shear stress

20

_________ mainstay of treatment and prevention for atherosclerosis; also, stabilize the plaques, making them less prone to rupture

Lipid lowering therapy

21

Which plaque is most prone to rupture?

Contains significant collagen and fibrin
Has a large lipid core with a thin cap
Contains high-density lipoproteins
Has areas of ischemia and necrosis

Has a large lipid core within a thin cap

22

oxygen supply insufficient to meet metabolic demands

ischemia

23

Critical factors in meeting cellular demands for oxygen include: (2)

Rate of coronary perfusion
Myocardial workload

24

Large, stable atherosclerotic plaque and acute platelet aggregation/thrombosis can alter _________

coronary perfusion

25

Vasospasm, failure of autoregulation by the microcirculation, and poor perfusion pressure can alter________

coronary perfusion

26

Chronic occlusion of a coronary vessel sign of ______

stable angina

27

Plaque disruption and thrombus formation and results in unstable angina or MI a sign of _______

acute occlusion

28

Myocardial ischemia may uncommonly be caused by (3)_______

Coronary vasospasm
Hypoxemia
Low perfusion pressure from volume depletion or shock

29

Chronic syndromes with slow progression due to chronic obstruction from ____________

from stable atherosclerotic plaques

30

Name 2 examples of chronic syndromes with slow progression

Stable angina pectoris
Ischemic cardiomyopathy