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Flashcards in CHF and Dysrhythmias Deck (74)
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1

Inability of heart to maintain sufficient cardiac output to meet metabolic demands of tissues and organs

Heart Failure

2

Heart failure results in congestion of blood flow in the ____or _______ venous circulation, inability to increase cardiac _____to meet the demands of activity or increased tissue metabolism

systemic, pulmonary, output

3

There is an increase in incidence of congestive heart failure among people over ____ years

65

4

is a potential consequence of most cardiac disorders

Heart failure

5

Most common cause of heart failure is ______followed by ______and dilated cardiomyopathy

myocardial ischemia; hypertension

6

Dyspnea, pulmonary rates, cardiomegaly symptoms of _____

heart failure

7

Pulmonary edema, S3 heart sound, and tachycardia signs of ______

heart failure

8

Heart failure results from impaired ability of ________ to contract, relax, or both

myocardial fibers

9

______ is a common etiology in Systolic Dysfunction of heart failure.

MI

10

In _______ dysfunction, reduced contractility evidenced by low _______ and reduced inotropy during ventricular systole

systolic; ejection fraction

11

In systolic dysfunction of heart failure, impaired contractility involves loss of _______, B receptor down regulation, and reduced ____ production

cardiac muscle cells, and reduced ATP production

12

What are the main 2 causes of diastolic dysfunction?

Coronary artery disease and hypertension are two main causes

13

Diastolic dysfunction in heart failure is more likely to develop in __________

elderly, women and those without history of MI

14

In _____ dysfunction, there is a disorder of _______ such that the ventricle is excessively noncompliant and does not fill effectively.

diastolic; myocardial relaxation

15

In diastolic dysfunction, there is low ______, congestion, and ______formation with ______ejection fraction

cardiac output, edema, normal

16

A nurse reads in the chart that a patient has an ejection fraction of 15%. This is consistent with a diagnosis of _____ heart failure.

diastolic
systolic
ectopic
vasovagal

systolic

17

Helpful in restoring cardiac output toward normal, but over the long term are detrimental to the heart

Compensatory mechanisms/remodeling

18

Current management of HF directed toward reducing the harmful consequences of these compensatory responses: (3)

SNS activation
Increased preload
Myocardial hypertrophy

19

Sympathetic nervous system activation is primarily a result of _______reflex stimulation, which detects ____in pressure

baroreceptor; fall

20

In SNS activation, _____ increases activity in the sympathetic nerves to the heart resulting in ______

CNS; venoconstriction

21

in ______ activation, juxtaglomerular cells release _____activating the RAAS cascade, resulting in increased_____ and water retention

SNS; renin; sodium

22

Process of myocyte loss, hypertrophy of remaining cells, and interstitial fibrosis are components of ________, in _____activation

remodeling in SNS activation

23

Initially a consequence of reduced EF with resultant increase in residual ESV

Increased Preload

24

In increased preload, there is decreased ____ to the kidney and reduced glomerular filtration = fluid _____

CO; conservation

25

In increased preload, the _____cascade is activated which = elevated blood _____

RAAS; volume

26

increased preload causes damage in _____

heart failure

27

States that the stroke volume of the left ventricle will increase as the left ventricular volume increases due to the myocyte stretch causing a more forceful systolic contraction.

Frank Starling Mechanism

28

Frank Starling Mechanism is associated with ______

increased preload

29

Myocardial Hypertrophy/Remodeling results from a chronic elevation of ________ wall tension. This is the ______

myocardial. Law of Laplace

30

In Myocardial Hypertrophy/Remodeling there is high ________pressure in the ventricle needed to overcome a high _______leading to hypertrophy.

systolic; afterload