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PATHO EXAM 2 > Cardiac Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac Function Deck (63)
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1

When contraction results in a rapid rise in ventricular pressure > aortic/pulmonic pressure, forcing the aortic/pulmonic valve to open with rapid ejection of blood from the ventricle

Ventricular Ejection

2

amount of blood ejected with each contraction of the ventricle

Stroke Volume

3

What is the formula for stroke volume?

SV = EDV – ESV

4

volume of blood in the ventricle prior to ejection

End-diastolic volume (EDV)

5

what is the formula for the ejection fraction? And what percentage is normal?

SV/EDV; normal—60% to 80%

6

rate and degree of ventricular relaxation

lusitropy

7

Mean right _______pressure is the same as central ____ pressure. This is a measurement of blood _____ in the heart.

arterial, venous, volume

8

Left main coronary artery divides into left _________branches

Anterior descending and circumflex

9

Left________supplies the septal, anterior, and apical areas

anterior descending

10

________supplies the lateral and posterior left ventricles

Circumflex

11

Right coronary artery supplies the _________ and _______

right atrium/ventricle and posterior left ventricle

12

Creatine phosphate (CP) is a storage form of ___, and an immediately available source of ____.

ATP, energy

13

Under conditions of low ATP availability, CP is converted to ATP by the enzyme

creatine kinase (CK)

14

Enzyme ________ is useful to help determine myocardial cell damage

CK

15

Sympathetic activation increases___(3)______via binding of norephinephrine to β receptors

heart rate (chronotropic effect), speed of conduction (dromotropic effect), and force of contraction (inotropic effect)

16

Another name for HR is _____ effect

chronotropic

17

Another name for speed of conduction is______effect

dromotropic

18

Another name for force of contraction is ______effect

inotropic

19

Parasympathetic stimulation results in ________ and ________ via binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors. An example is the _____ response.

reduction in heart rate, and speed of action potential conduction. vasovagal

20

As action potentials spread throughout the ________, electrical current is transmitted to the body surface

myocardium

21

A recording of these electrical currents is called an

electrocardiogram (ECG)

22

Electrocardiogram (ECG) identifies irregularities in
___(2)____

Impulse initiation, and conduction rates/pathways

23

corresponds to atrial depolarization

P wave

24

represents ventricular depolarization

QRS Complex

25

reflects ventricular repolarization

T wave

26

in slow heart rate and low potassium

U wave

27

Measure of the amount of blood pumped out of the heart each minute

cardiac output

28

Normal resting cardiac output is

5-6 L/minute

29

_______is a measure of cardiac output relative to body surface area

Cardiac index

30

What is the formula for cardiac output?

CO = stroke volume x heart rate