Flashcards in Cardiac Function Deck (63)
When contraction results in a rapid rise in ventricular pressure > aortic/pulmonic pressure, forcing the aortic/pulmonic valve to open with rapid ejection of blood from the ventricle
amount of blood ejected with each contraction of the ventricle
What is the formula for stroke volume?
SV = EDV – ESV
volume of blood in the ventricle prior to ejection
End-diastolic volume (EDV)
what is the formula for the ejection fraction? And what percentage is normal?
SV/EDV; normal—60% to 80%
rate and degree of ventricular relaxation
Mean right _______pressure is the same as central ____ pressure. This is a measurement of blood _____ in the heart.
arterial, venous, volume
Left main coronary artery divides into left _________branches
Anterior descending and circumflex
Left________supplies the septal, anterior, and apical areas
________supplies the lateral and posterior left ventricles
Right coronary artery supplies the _________ and _______
right atrium/ventricle and posterior left ventricle
Creatine phosphate (CP) is a storage form of ___, and an immediately available source of ____.
Under conditions of low ATP availability, CP is converted to ATP by the enzyme
creatine kinase (CK)
Enzyme ________ is useful to help determine myocardial cell damage
Sympathetic activation increases___(3)______via binding of norephinephrine to β receptors
heart rate (chronotropic effect), speed of conduction (dromotropic effect), and force of contraction (inotropic effect)
Another name for HR is _____ effect
Another name for speed of conduction is______effect
Another name for force of contraction is ______effect
Parasympathetic stimulation results in ________ and ________ via binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic receptors. An example is the _____ response.
reduction in heart rate, and speed of action potential conduction. vasovagal
As action potentials spread throughout the ________, electrical current is transmitted to the body surface
A recording of these electrical currents is called an
Electrocardiogram (ECG) identifies irregularities in
Impulse initiation, and conduction rates/pathways
corresponds to atrial depolarization
represents ventricular depolarization
reflects ventricular repolarization
in slow heart rate and low potassium
Measure of the amount of blood pumped out of the heart each minute
Normal resting cardiac output is
_______is a measure of cardiac output relative to body surface area