Flashcards in Personality Deck (18)
What is personality?
The psychological qualities that influence an individual’s characteristic behaviour patterns, in a stable and distinctive manner
What are the five personality characteristics in The Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992)?
What is openness from The Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992)?
Being curious as opposed to cautious, includes creativity, preference for variety, pursuing self actualisation through intense, euphoric experiences
What is conscientiousness from The Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992)?
Being efficient/organised as opposed to easy going/careless, includes being self disciplined, dependable, preference for plans rather than spontaneity
What is extraversion from The Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992)?
Being outgoing as opposed to reserved, includes being energetic, sociable, a tendency to seek the company of others
What is agreeableness from The Big Five (Costa and McCrae, 1992)?
Being friendly as opposed to challenging, a tendency to be compassionate rather than antagonistic, being of a helpful nature
What is neuroticism from The Big Five (Costa and McCrae, 1992)?
Being sensitive/nervous compared to secure/confident. Being prone to psychological stress, easily experiencing unpleasant emotions, impulsive and emotionally unstable
What did Chiaburu et al (2011) find out about the predictive power of the Big Five?
Conscientiousness is expected to lead to better work performance. Openness relates positively to job satisfaction (Judge et al 2002)
How did Friedman and Rosenman (1974) outline Type A personality?
- Achievement Focused
- Fast worker
- High alertness
How did Friedman and Rosenman (1974) outline Type B personality?
- Work life balance
- Achievement not main focus
- Easy going
- Steady pace
- Rarely impatient
- Not easily frustrated
- Enough time at hand
Why was Type A developed? (Friedman and Rosenman 1974)
To measure cardiovascular health, Type A said to be at a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease
How does personality relate to performance?
- Assumed to be linked
- Certain traits suitable for certain tasks
- High extraversion good for sales
- Selection process - candidate suitability depends on personality
- Predictions based on psychometric testing, assessment centres, interviewing
What are impression management tactics in terms of image creation during interviews?
Employees trying to present themselves as suitable candidates to interviewers. The type of tactic relates to current and desired personality. Self promotion and extraversion impact on the success at interviews.
What is Adam Grant's Give and Take theory?
That people are either givers, takers or matchers. Companies try to recruit matchers although givers can be the best performers if they give wisely.
What are takers according to Adam Grant?
Self focused, put their own interests ahead of others'/ needs, they try to gain as much as possible from their interactions while contributing as little as they can in return
What are matchers according to Adam Grant?
They operate with an equal balance of giving and taking, middle of the road performance, they add value to others and themselves
What are givers according to Adam Grant?
They are others focused, happier people, tend to support others and add value to them while getting nothing in return. Can be the worst performers