Flashcards in Motivation Deck (41)
What is motivation?
- The cognitive decision making process through which goal directed behaviour is initiated, energised, directed and maintained (H and b,2013)
- The forces that drive people to act in particular ways (Gabriel, 2008)
How it the basic concept of motivation outlined?
Through a stimulus, a response and an outcome
What is the stimulus in terms of the concept of motivation?
- Psychological needs
- Want, desires, emotional, social needs
What is the response in terms of the concept of motivation?
- E.g if stimulus is thirst, the behaviour would be to drink enough
What is the outcome in terms of the concept of motivation?
- Satisfy need/failure to satisfy need
- Attain wants/needs, fail to attain satisfaction
Why do we study motivation?
Organisations need a motivated workforce in order to be successful, achieve their goals, grow etc
In challenging economic conditions, motivation is important.
Helps avoid bore out, burn out and fosters engagement and commitment
What are the three types of motivation theories?
- Content (or need)
- Job enrichment
What are content theories?
They focus on the desired goals and motives e.g Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Alderfer's ERG Theory
What are the process theories?
They explore/explain decision processes
e.g Adam's Equity Theory, Locke's Goal Setting Theory, Vroom's Expectancy Theory
What are job enrichment theories?
They align work with organisational goals through social processes e.g Herzberg's Two Factor Theory
What does Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs assume?
- Low levels need to be satisfied to move up to higher levels
- Human beings want to move up the hierarchy
- Everyone strives for self actualisation
- Still influential today for management practice
What are the criticisms of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?
- Some people may be deprived of lower level needs but still strive for self actualisation
- Lack of cause and effect between need and behaviour
- People not always aware of their needs
- Measurement of satisfaction of needs not possible
What did Ed Diener (2011) find about the HoN across cultures?
- 155 countries between 2005-2010
- Looked at food, shelter, money, social support, respect and emotions
- The needs described in the theory appeared to be universal
- The order wasn't important
What is Alderfer's ERG Theory?
Expands on Maslow's hierarchy of needs based on empirical research (1966-1989), he focuses on three needs existence needs, related needs and growth needs
What are the existence needs from Alderfer's ERG theory?
The desire for physiological and material well being
What are the relatedness needs from Alderfer's ERG theory?
The desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships
What are the growth needs from Alderfer's ERG theory?
Desire for continued personal growth and development
How does Alderfer's ERG theory relate to the Hierarchy of Needs?
Existence needs concern the safety and physiological needs from the from the first two levels, relatedness needs concern social needs from the third tier and growth needs relate to esteem and self actualisation needs at the top of the hierarchy
What is Adam's Equity Theory?
People gauge the fairness of their work outcomes in relation to others - insiders and outsiders called referents
When is equity achieved in Adam's Equity Theory?
Self outcomes/self inputs = others outcomes/others inputs
When is there underpayment equity in Adam's Equity Theory?
Self outcomes/self inputs
When is there overpayment equity in Adam's Equity Theory?
Self outcomes/self inputs > others outcomes/others inputs - individual feels they received relatively more in proportion to work inputs
How to perceived discrepancies motivate action with regards to Adam's Equity Theory?
- Inequalities lead to tensions
- Individuals engage in various strategies to resolve tension
What behaviours can individuals undertake to reduce inequity in terms of Adam's Equity Theory?
1. Change inputs
2. Change outcomes
3. Get other to change inputs or outcomes
4. Quit job
How can individuals change their cognitive way of perceiving the inequity in Adam's Equity Theory?
1. Distort own inputs/outputs
2. Distort other's inputs or outcomes
3. Change comparison other
What are the managerial implications from Adam's Equity Theory?
- Underpaid people experience anger/overpaid people experience guilt
- Perceptions of rewards determine motivational outcomes
- Negative consequences of equity comparisons should be minimised
- Do not underestimate the impact of pay as a source of equity
What are the limitations of equity theory?
- A desire for equity is not universal
- Each according to his need - socialist/former communist
- Other research found that friends value giving as much as receiving
What is the basic premise of Goal Setting Theory by Edwin Locke?
That specific and difficult goals, with self generated feedback, lead to higher performance, this means that work motivation is influenced by goal difficulty, goal specifity and knowledge of results
What are the assumptions of Edwin Locke's Goal Setting Theory?
- Challenging goals lead to higher levels of performance
- Specific goals lead to higher levels of performance
- Participation in goal setting improves performance
- Knowledge of results of past performance (feedback) increased motivation