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Flashcards in Groups and Teamwork Deck (36)
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How are groups involved in organisations?

- Group membership is essential to human behaviour and almost unavoidable
- Working in groups/teams is central to organisational life, structure and design
- Functioning group is more than the sum of its parts


Why do we care about teams?

- Team conflict and cohesion relate to team effectiveness
- Team effectiveness is an important predictor for team performance, satisfaction and productivity
- Spillover effects of team performance to individual level and organisational level success


What is the definition of a group?

Any number of people who interact with one another, are psychologically aware of one another and perceive themselves to be a group (Schein, 1988)


What is the definition of a team?

Can be two or more people psychologically contracted together to achieve a goal


How can teams be distinguished from groups?

Team goals: groups don't need to have goals

Shared leadership

Shared accountability

Self developed mission

Continuous problem solving


What is the difference between a formal and informal team?

Established by organisations vs emerging naturally e.g working on a project vs play on a sport team


Which types of work teams exist?

- Problem solving
- Functional
- Virtual
- Self managed
- Cross functional


What is Tuckman's (1977) Five Stage Theory of Group Development?

Shows how teams form:
1. Forming
2. Storming
3. Norming
4. Performing


What are the individual and group issues associated with forming?

"How do I fit in?"

"Why are we here?"


What are the individual and group issues associated with storming?

"What's my role here?"

"Why are we fighting over who's in charge and who does what?"


What are the individual and group issues associated with the norming stage?

"What do the others expect me to do?"

"Can we agree on roles and work as a team?"


What are the individual and group issues associated with performing?

"How can I best perform my role?"

"Can we do the job properly?"


What is the definition of forming from Five Stage Theory?

- Defines leadership, roles and responsibilities
- Some levels of anxiety, impression management


What is the definition for storming from the Five Stage Theory?

- More openness leads to potential disagreements


What is the definition of norming from Five Stage Theory?

- Resolution of conflict
- Establish co-operation in order to achieve group purpose


What is the definition of performing from the Five Stage Theory?

- Cohesiveness established
- Effective performance vis a vis goal


What is the definition of adjourning from the Five Stage Theory?

- Dissolving of group and return to individual tasks
- Experiences of sadness and sense of loss


What implications does forming have for managers?

- Purposefully pick teams
- Establish team identity
- Develop shared mental models


What implications does storming have for managers?

- Act as a resource to the team
- Develop mutual trust
- Calm the work environment


What implications does norming have for managers?

- Get constant feedback
- Transfer leadership


What implications does performing have for managers?

- Allow for flexibility in team roles
- Assist in timing and selection of new members


What is the extended Tuckman model?

Includes de-norming, de-storming and de-forming


What is de norming from the extended Tuckman Model?

A natural erosion of group standards of conduct. Group members drift in different directions.


What is de storming from the extended Tuckman Model?

An undercurrent of discontent slowly comes to the surface. Individual resistance increases and cohesiveness declines.


What is de forming from the extended Tuckman model?

Work group literally falls apart as subgroups battle for control


What is the punctuated equilibrium model?

How teams with deadlines are affected by first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions.


What is phase 1 of the punctuated equilibrium model?

First meeting to midpoint of existence, little progress is made


What is the midpoint transaction of the punctuated equilibrium model?

Need to move forward is apparent


What is phase 2 of the punctuated equilibrium model?

Decisions and approaches are played out


What makes an effective team?

- Commitment to group
- Shared aims and objectives
- Participation and consensual decision making
- Openness, honesty, free flow of information
- Resolution of conflict
- Accepting group values and norms