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Flashcards in Change and Leadership Deck (36)
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1

Why do we study change?

Organisations may not survive if they do not change. CEOs facing relentless pressure for change. Triggers of change prompt organisational change.

2

What are triggers of change?

- Technology
- Economic shocks
- Social trends
- World politics

3

What are the two forms of resistance to change?

1. Overt and immediate
2. Implicit and deferred

4

What is overt and immediate change resistance to change?

Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions

5

What is implicit and deferred resistance to change?

Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism

6

What are the sources of resistance to change?

Individual - habit, security, economic factors, fear of the unknown and selective information processing

Organisational - structural inertia, limited focus of change, group inertia, threat to expertise, threat to established power relationships and resource allocations

7

What Van dam et al (2008) find about recent evidence on change and voice?

Employees reactions to change are considered critical for the success of change efforts

8

What are Kotter's eight steps of change management?

1. Create urgency
2. Form a powerful coalition
3 Create a vision for change
4. Communicate the vision
5. Empower action
6. Create quick wins
7. Build on the change
8. Make the change stick

9

Which factors of the eight steps of change management come under creating the climate for change?

1. Create urgency
2. Form a powerful coalition
3. Create a vision for change

10

Which factors of the eight steps of change management come under engaging and enabling the organisation?

4. Communicate the vision
5. Empower action
6. Create quick wins

11

Which factors of the eight steps of change management come under implementing and sustaining for change?

7. Build on the change
8. Make it stick

12

What is leadership?

The process of influencing the activities of an organised group and in its efforts towards goal setting and goal achievement

13

Why do we study leadership?

- Leaders have a big impact on our personal lives as well as the organisation they lead
- Proposition that leadership is linked to organisational performance

14

What is leadership as a trait?

During the 1950s, researchers assumed leaders possessed certain traits or attributes - 'Great Man (sic) Theory'

Leaders were believed to be exceptional people, born with innate qualities, destined to lead

Term 'man' was intentional - concept was primarily male, military and Western

15

What are the Ohio State Leadership styles in terms of leadership as a behaviour?

A matrix of initiating structure (low/high) and consideration (low/high)

16

What defines a leadership style that is low consideration and low initiating structure according to the Ohio State Leadership Style?

The leader fails to provide necessary structure and demonstrates little consideration for employee needs and wants

17

What is high structure, low consideration leadership according to the Ohio State Leadership Style?

Primary emphasis is placed on structuring employee tasks while the leader demonstrates little consideration for employee needs and wants

18

What is low structure, high consideration leadership according to the Ohio State Leadership Style?

Less emphasis is placed on structuring employee tasks while the leader concentrates on satisfying employee needs and wants

19

What is the high structure, high consideration leadership style according to the Ohio State Leadership Style?

The leader provides a lot of guidance about how tasks can be completed while being highly considerate f employee needs and wants

20

What is the contingency theory of leadership?

- Developed in the mid 1960s
- Effective leadership depends on leadership style
- Situational favourableness affects leadership

21

How is the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Leadership Continuum structured?

Use of authority vs Areas of freedom for subordinates

22

What are the stages of the Tannenbaum and Schmidt continuum?

1. Tells - makes decisions
2. Sells - explains decisions
3. Consults - gets suggestions
4. Shares - defines limits, group decides
5. Delegates - subordinates function within defined limits

23

How does situational favourableness affect the contingency theory of leadership?

Leader member relations - the level of trust and confidence that the team has in you

Task structure - refers to the type of task you're doing: clear and structured, or vague and unstructured

Leader's power position - this is the amount of power you have to direct the group, and provide reward or punishment

24

What are the competencies that relate to strong ethics and safety from the top 10 leadership competencies?

1. Has high ethics and safety
3. Clearly communicates expectations

25

What are the competencies that relate to self organising from the top 10 leadership competencies?

2. Provides goals and objectives with loose guidelines/directions

26

What are the competencies that relate to efficient learning from the top 10 leadership competencies?

4. Has the flexibility to change opinions
7. Is open to new ideas and approaches
10. Provides safety for trial and error

27

What are the competencies relating to nurturing growth from the top 10 leadership competencies?

5. Is committed to ongoing training
11. Helps me grow into the next generation leader

28

What are the competencies relating to connection and belonging from the top 10 leadership competencies?

6. Communications often and openly
8. Creates a feeling of succeeding and failing together

29

What is new leadership?

Burns (1978) distinguished between transactional and transformational leadership

30

What is transactional leadership from new leadership?

- Leadership is trading or bargaining
- Follows prescribed tasks to achieve established goals