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Name the 3 methods of production



The production method used will depend on a number of factors. Name 4 of these

The skills of the workforce- where a low skilled labour is employed a mechanised process may be more effective

The finance that the organisation has available- for example flow production can be expensive to set up

The size of the business

The actual product being made


What is job production?

This means that one unique product is made at a time and completed before another 'job' is started.

These can be small or large scale.

The product is tailor made for an individual customer

This method tends to be labour intensive.


Name 3 advantages of job production

It is often easier to organise production on a small scale
The order can be changed during the production process to meet the customers requirements
Workers will see the results of their labour which can be motivating


Name 3 disadvantages of job production

Costs may be higher as specialist machinery may be required
Production costs are likely to be high for the job costing as there are few economies of scale
Skilled workers will be required, adding wage costs to production


What is batch production?

This involves a group of products being made together with each stage of the production process being completed at the same time.
The products may be similar although there will be different variations
The products may vary from one batch to another
One batch is completed before another is started


Name 3 advantages of batch production

Allows for more flexible production than flow production
Costs are lower than job production as there is less need for skilled workers
Batches of similar products can be altered to meet customer needs


Name 3 disadvantages of batch production

Production runs of small batches may be expensive to produce
Can be demotivating for staff as they repeat the same tasks
One error in production can destroy the whole batch


What is flow production?

Production is carried out using mainly machinery involving a highly automated process.
There is a production line where the product being produced flows through various stages with parts being added at each stage
This results in a continuous output of products that are basically the same


Give 3 advantages of flow production

Economies of scale can be achieved
Automated production lines save time and money
Quality systems can be built in to the production


Give 3 disadvantages of flow production

A standard product is produced that may not suit all customers
The cost for the set up of automated production line is high
Work can be repetitive and boring for workers


Give 3 advantages of using automation for production?

Machines can carry out very complicated tasks very quickly and with a high degree of accuracy
There is far less waste when machines are used
Robots can operate in hazardous conditions


Give 3 disadvantages of using automation for production

Machines are harder to replace than humans if they break down
They will be able to carry out only a very narrow range of tasks
They are expensive to install and maintain


What are labour intensive and capital intensive production?

Labour intensive is where the cost of labour is greater than the cost of capital

Capital intensive is when machines are used in production rather than workers


Give 3 advantages of using skilled workers

Skilled workers will produce quality products
A niche market can be created and higher prices charged because the product has been made by skilled workers
There is a personal touch- customers like dealing with people who they can talk to rather than machines


Give 3 disadvantages of using skilled workers

Skilled workers take their time, machines are much faster
Skilled workers are expensive in terms of wages
Workers need to be motivated, managed and supervised