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Flashcards in MNT Deck (70)
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1

Food Allergy

abnormal immune response to a protein in a food source (that most individuals are able to consume); may be IgE (histamine rxn) or non-IgE mediated (ie FPIES).

2

Food Intolerance

a reaction (that doesn't involve the immune system) that occurs to a (generally, non-protein) substance in a food

3

Most common food allergens for children

eggs, fish, shellfish, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, soy

4

Most common food allergens for adults

fish, shellfish, peanuts, tree nuts

5

HIV/AIDS: laboratory values to monitor for protein status

albumin, prealbumin, TIBC, or transferrin

6

HIV/AIDS: dietary goals and recs

maintain/improve nutrition status, avoid malnutrition; food consistency and nutrients evaluated based on symptoms; increase kcal and pro to aid in resistance to infection

7

HIV/AIDS: dietary modifications

nausea- small, freq meals

anorexia/poor appetite - small, freq, nutrient dense meals

xerostomia - moist foods, sauces, gravies; increase fluid intake

8

Kwashiorkor

pro def, adequate kcal; loss of visceral protein, distended abdomen, fatty liver, edema, moon-shaped face

9

Anasarca

massive edema; may occur in Kwashiorkor, organ failure, etc.

10

Marasmus

pro and kcal def; extreme loss of somatic and visceral pro, emaciated, muscle wasting, very low body weight

11

Diabetes: Dx criteria

FBG - ≥ 126 mg/dL
Random BG ≥200
Two-hour plasma glucose ≥200
A1c ≥ 6.5%
Confirmed by a second test on a different date

12

Diabetes: glycemic control goals (A1c, pre-prandial, and 2-hour post-prandial)

A1c <180

13

Diabetes: diet therapy goals

Control BG levels, eating a diet balanced with all necessary nutrients; normalize blood lipids, weight maintenance, improve overall health

14

T2DM: weight loss and insulin resistance

10-20 lbs can aid in lowering insulin resistance

15

Pre-diabetes: dx criteria

FBG 100-125
A1c 5.7-6.4%

16

Pre-diabetes: treatment

weight loss, physical activity, healthy diet

17

Gestational diabetes: risk factors

family hx, >25 yrs, prior macrosomia baby, hx of GDM or pre-diabetes, overweight BMI, African American, American Indian, Asian, Hispanic, or Pacific Islander descent.

18

Gestational diabetes: testing

Occurs at 24-28 weeks gestation with OGTT

19

Diabetes: macronutrient distributions for meal planning

CHO 45-60%
Protein 10-20%
Fat <10%
Fiber 20-35 g

20

Gastroparesis

delayed gastric emptying due to damage to the vagus nerve, which causes peristalsis; nutrition intervention = small, freq, low-fat, low fiber meals

21

Lispro (Humalog) - action onset, peak action, effective duration

Rapid Acting

<15 minutes
1-2 hours
3-4 hours

22

Regular - action onset, peak action, effective duration

Short Acting

1/2-1 hour
2-3 hours
3-6 hours

23

NPH - action onset, peak action, effective duration

Intermediate Acting

2-4 hours
4-10 hours
10-16 hours

24

Glargine (Lantus) - action onset, peak action, effective duration

Long Acting

2-4 hours
NONE
20-24 hours

25

Gout

high conc of uric acid in blood; MNT = low purine diet, limiting meats (esp organ meats)

26

Reactive hypoglycemia

improper CHO metab; weakness, shakiness, dizziness, hunger; occurs following a meal due to remaining excess insulin after food is gone; MNT = small meals with protein

27

Fasting hypoglycemia

improper CHO metab; weakness, shakiness, dizziness, hunger; occurs without food or as a result of meds; MNT = small meals with protein

28

Maple Syrup Urine Disease

genetic disorder; prevents b/d BCAA, which results in BCAA accumulation (isoleucine, leucine, valine); blood levels of BCAA should be monitored and dietary restrictions of this AA req. High protein, medically therapeutic foods low in BCAA available.

29

Phenylketonuria

Avoid phenylalanine; increase tyrosine; eliminate aspartame.

30

Prader-Willi Syndrome

Genetic disorder; mental disabilities, decreased muscle tone, persistent hunger--> overeating and morbid obesity. MNT = low kcal; limit access to food