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Flashcards in Micro - Systems Deck (148)
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1

A neonate gets an infection in utero and develops notched teeth, saddle nose, short maxilla, and saber shins (see images). Diagnosis?

Syphilis

2

A patient has vesicular rashes on the palms and soles and ulcers in the oral mucosa (see image). What caused this?

Coxsackie A virus

3

What causes Prion diseases?

Prion protein (PrPc: a normal cellular protein) gets converted into a -pleated form (PrPsc), which destroys normal tissue

4

What clinical manifestations does prion accumulation cause?

Spongiform encephalopathy, ataxia, dementia, and death

5

Why does the -pleated form of Prion protein cause encephalopathy?

Because it is resistant to degradation and facilitates conversion of more prion protein to the -pleated (pathologic) form

6

_____ is an example of an inherited prion disease; _____ is an example of an acquired prion disease; _____ is an example of a sporadic prion disease.

Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome; kuru; Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

7

Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered normal flora of what parts of the body?

The skin and nose

8

Staphylococcus aureus normally colonizes what part of the body?

The nose

9

In which part of the body are viridans streptococci considered normal flora?

The oropharynx

10

Where in the body is Streptococcus mutans part of the normal dominant flora?

The dental plaque

11

Which bacteria are considered part of the normal dominant flora of the colon?

Bacteroides fragilis and to a lesser extent, Escherichia coli

12

Which three bacteria are considered dominant flora in the vagina?

Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and group B Streptococcus

13

What two organisms that causes food poisoning are found in contaminated seafood?

Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus

14

What gram-positive rod causes food poisoning associated with reheated rice?

Bacillus cereus (remember: Food poisoning from reheated rice? Be serious!)

15

Given that symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning can begin within an hour, symptoms are caused by what?

Preformed toxins

16

Which two organisms cause food poisoning that starts quickly and ends quickly?

Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus

17

Staphylococcus aureus preformed toxin is found in what types of foods?

Meats, mayonnaise, and custard

18

Which bacteria are associated with food poisoning after consumption of reheated meat dishes?

Clostridium perfringens

19

Which bacteria are associated with food poisoning after consumption of improperly canned foods (ie, bulging cans)?

Clostridium botulinum

20

Which gram-negative rod causes food poisoning in undercooked meat?

Escherichia coli

21

What bacteria cause food poisoning that is associated with contaminated poultry, meat, and eggs?

Salmonella

22

In addition to causing food poisoning, what other type of infection can Vibrio vulnificus cause?

Wound infections (after contact with shellfish or contaminated water)

23

Name eight organisms that can cause bloody diarrhea.

Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, Shigella, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Clostridium difficile, and Entamoeba histolytica

24

Name eight organisms (bacteria, protozoa and viruses) that can cause watery diarrhea.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium perfringens, Giardia, Cryptosporidium (in immunocompromised patients), rotavirus, adenovirus, and Norwalk virus

25

What comma- or S-shaped organisms cause bloody diarrhea, grow at 42°C, and are oxidase positive?

Campylobacter jejuni

26

What nonlactose-fermenting, motile, gram-negative rod causes bloody diarrhea?

Salmonella

27

What nonlactose-fermenting, nonmotile, gram-negative rod has a low ID50 and causes dysentery?

Shigella

28

Infection with what organism can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome and a bloody diarrhea that is caused by a Shiga-like toxin?

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

29

How does enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli cause bloody diarrhea?

By the invasion of the colonic mucosa

30

What organism causes bloody diarrhea and pseudoappendicitis and is associated with outbreaks in day-care centers?

Yersinia enterocolitica