A neonate gets an infection in utero and develops notched teeth, saddle nose, short maxilla, and saber shins (see images). Diagnosis?
A patient has vesicular rashes on the palms and soles and ulcers in the oral mucosa (see image). What caused this?
Coxsackie A virus
What causes Prion diseases?
Prion protein (PrPc: a normal cellular protein) gets converted into a -pleated form (PrPsc), which destroys normal tissue
What clinical manifestations does prion accumulation cause?
Spongiform encephalopathy, ataxia, dementia, and death
Why does the -pleated form of Prion protein cause encephalopathy?
Because it is resistant to degradation and facilitates conversion of more prion protein to the -pleated (pathologic) form
_____ is an example of an inherited prion disease; _____ is an example of an acquired prion disease; _____ is an example of a sporadic prion disease.
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome; kuru; Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Staphylococcus epidermidis is considered normal flora of what parts of the body?
The skin and nose
Staphylococcus aureus normally colonizes what part of the body?
In which part of the body are viridans streptococci considered normal flora?
Where in the body is Streptococcus mutans part of the normal dominant flora?
The dental plaque
Which bacteria are considered part of the normal dominant flora of the colon?
Bacteroides fragilis and to a lesser extent, Escherichia coli
Which three bacteria are considered dominant flora in the vagina?
Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and group B Streptococcus
What two organisms that causes food poisoning are found in contaminated seafood?
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus
What gram-positive rod causes food poisoning associated with reheated rice?
Bacillus cereus (remember: Food poisoning from reheated rice? Be serious!)
Given that symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning can begin within an hour, symptoms are caused by what?
Which two organisms cause food poisoning that starts quickly and ends quickly?
Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus
Staphylococcus aureus preformed toxin is found in what types of foods?
Meats, mayonnaise, and custard
Which bacteria are associated with food poisoning after consumption of reheated meat dishes?
Which bacteria are associated with food poisoning after consumption of improperly canned foods (ie, bulging cans)?
Which gram-negative rod causes food poisoning in undercooked meat?
What bacteria cause food poisoning that is associated with contaminated poultry, meat, and eggs?
In addition to causing food poisoning, what other type of infection can Vibrio vulnificus cause?
Wound infections (after contact with shellfish or contaminated water)
Name eight organisms that can cause bloody diarrhea.
Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella, Shigella, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Clostridium difficile, and Entamoeba histolytica
Name eight organisms (bacteria, protozoa and viruses) that can cause watery diarrhea.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Clostridium perfringens, Giardia, Cryptosporidium (in immunocompromised patients), rotavirus, adenovirus, and Norwalk virus
What comma- or S-shaped organisms cause bloody diarrhea, grow at 42°C, and are oxidase positive?
What nonlactose-fermenting, motile, gram-negative rod causes bloody diarrhea?
What nonlactose-fermenting, nonmotile, gram-negative rod has a low ID50 and causes dysentery?
Infection with what organism can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome and a bloody diarrhea that is caused by a Shiga-like toxin?
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
How does enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli cause bloody diarrhea?
By the invasion of the colonic mucosa
What organism causes bloody diarrhea and pseudoappendicitis and is associated with outbreaks in day-care centers?