A patient presents with septic shock and has the blood cultures shown here. What organism is this? What other organs should you worry about?
Staphylococcus aureus; bone and heart; S. aureus causes osteomyelitis and acute bacterial endocarditis
A patient is found to have this histologic finding on biopsy of an upper lobe lesion. What is the most likely medical history?
An adult reinfected with tuberculosis
All mycobacteria have what staining property seen in this image?
They are all acid-fast
What bacteria causes syphilis?
Treponema pertenue causes what condition?
What tropical infection is not a sexually transmitted disease but results in a positive venereal disease research laboratory test?
What are the symptoms commonly associated with yaws?
Joint deformities following keloid healing of skin, bone and joint infection
First-degree syphilis presents with what type of lesion?
A painless chancre at the site of infection (localized disease)
Is second-degree syphilis a localized or disseminated disease?
Disseminated (remember: Secondary syphilis = Systemic)
Second-degree syphilis presents with what type of skin manifestations?
A maculopapular rash on palms and soles and condylomata lata
Third-degree syphilis presents with what signs and symptoms?
Gummas, aortitis, tabes dorsalis, and Argyll Robertson pupil
Which stage of syphilis is characterized by broad-based ataxia, a positive Romberg sign, Charcot joints, and stroke-like symptoms?
Third-degree syphilis can present with what neurologic defects?
Tabes dorsalis (resulting in broad-based gait, ataxia, and positive Romberg test) and Argyll Robertson pupil
What signs and symptoms are associated with congenital syphilis?
Saber shins, saddle-nose deformity, neurological (cranial nerve VIII) deafness, Hutchinsons teeth, and mulberry molars
What is the treatment of choice for syphilis?
Where can treponemes be found during primary and secondary syphilis?
In chancres during primary syphilis and in condylomata lata during secondary syphilis
What causes aortitis in tertiary syphilis?
Destruction of the vasa vasorum
Argyll Robertson pupil is associated with what disease?
Describe the findings in a patient with an Argyll Robertson pupil.
Pupil dilation with accommodation but not with direct light
Which diagnostic test is most specific for treponemes, turns positive earliest during the course of disease, and remains positive for the longest time?
Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test (remember: FTA-ABS = Find The Antibody-ABSolutely)
A positive venereal disease research laboratory test and a positive fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test indicate what?
Active infection with a treponeme that causes syphilis
If a venereal disease research laboratory test is positive but the fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test is negative, what is the interpretation?
False-positive result for syphilis infection
What do negative venereal disease research laboratory test and positive fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test results indicate?
Successful treatment of syphilis
Which conditions give biologic false-positive results for the venereal disease research laboratory test?
Viral infection, drugs, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and leprosy. (remember: VDRL = Viruses, Drugs, Rheumatic fever and arthritis, Lupus and leprosy)
A positive venereal disease research laboratory indicates that antibodies have formed against what molecule?
Name six medically important zoonotic bacteria.
Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella spp, Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, and Pasteurella multocida, Ella (remember: Big Bad Bugs From Your Pet named Ella)
What organism transmitted by dairy products and contact with animals causes undulant fever?
Brucella spp (remember: Unpasteurized dairy products give you Undulant fever)
A dairy farmer presents with one week of fever that waxes and wanes without treatment. What is the diagnosis?
Brucella spp, which are found in dairy products or transmitted via contact with cows, sheep, and goats
How is Francisella tularensis transmitted?
What organism causes tularemia?