Micro - Virology (Part 2) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro - Virology (Part 2) Deck (64)
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1

A boy has spots on his oral mucosa that are red with a blue-white center and a maculopapular rash on his chest, as shown. What is the cause?

Rubeola (measles) virus; note the Koplik spots on the inner cheek and the diffuse rash

2

A patient presents with ulcerating painful lesions on her genitals similar to the image shown here. What is the diagnosis?

Herpes genitalis

3

How long is the incubation period of the hepatitis B virus?

3 months

4

What characteristics do hepatitis B and C have in common?

They are both transmitted by blood, they both have chronic carriers, and they both can cause chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma

5

Which patient populations are at high risk for hepatitis C?

Intravenous drug users and posttransfusion patients

6

Infection with which hepatitis virus requires coinfection with hepatitis B virus?

Hepatitis D virus (remember: Hepatitis D is Defective and Dependent on hepatitis B virus coinfection)

7

What are two severe long-term sequelae of chronic infection with hepatitis C?

Cirrhosis and carcinoma (remember: Hep C: Chronic, Cirrhosis, Carcinoma Carrier)

8

A bat researcher develops fever, malaise, photophobia, and coma. He dies. Pathology shows cytoplasmic inclusions in his neurons. Etiology?

Rabies virus; note the Negri bodies on histopathology, which are characteristic of rabies

9

Which has a worse prognosis: coinfection with hepatitis B and hepatitis D, or superinfection of hepatitis D in a patient with hepatitis B?

Superinfection leads to more severe illness

10

Which two types of hepatitis are trasmitted through the bowels?

Hep A (primarily fecal-oral) and hep E (enteric) (remember: "the vowels hit your bowels")

11

Why are hepatitis A and E viruses infectious via the fecal-oral route, whereas hepatitis B, C, and D are not?

Because enveloped viruses (B, C, D) are destroyed by the gut whereas naked viruses (A, E) are not

12

What are the signs and symptoms of hepatitis infection?

Episodic fevers, jaundice, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels

13

Which serologic marker indicates prior infection with and is protective against reinfection with hepatitis A infection?

Immunoglobulin G hepatitis A virus antibody

14

Which serologic marker detects active hepatitis A infection?

Immunoglobulin M hepatitis A virus antibody

15

What does the continued presence of hepatitis B surface antigen in serum mean?

A chronic infection and carrier status for the patient

16

Which antibody is protective against hepatitis B infection?

Hepatitis B surface antibody

17

Which hepatitis serologic marker is positive during the "window period"?

Hepatitis B core antibody

18

What is the significance of immunoglobulin M hepatitis B core antibody vs immunoglobulin G hepatitis B core antibody on serologic studies?

Regarding hepatitis B virus core antibodies, immunoglobulin M is a marker for recent disease whereas immunoglobulin G is a marker for chronic disease

19

What is the significance of hepatitis B envelope antigen?

The level of the envelope antigen in serum is a marker of the infectivity of the patient because it indicates active viral replication

20

What does the presence of hepatitis B e antibody indicate?

Presence of antibodies to the envelope antigen indicates lower transmissibility

21

The presence of which hepatitis B serologic marker would be seen in an asymptomatic patient in the hepatitis B incubation period?

Hepatitis B surface antigen

22

What pattern of transaminase elevation is seen in viral hepatitis? In alcoholic hepatitis?

In viral hepatitis, alanine aminotransferase > aspartate aminotransferase; in alcoholic hepatitis, aspartate aminotransferase > alanine aminotransferase

23

In acute hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis B surface antigen tests would be (+/-) _____, hepatitis B surface antibody would be (+/-) _____, and hepatitis B core antibody would be (+/-) _____.

Positive; negative; positive (immunoglobulin M hepatitis B core antibody in acute stage, immunoglobulin G hepatitis B core antibody in chronic or recovered phase)

24

In the window phase of hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis B surface antigen tests would be (+/-) _____, hepatitis B surface antibody would be (+/-) _____, and hepatitis B core antibody would be (+/-) _____.

Hepatitis B surface antigen negative; hepatitis B surface antibody negative; hepatitis B core antibody positive

25

After complete recovery from hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis B surface antigen tests would be (+/-) _____, hepatitis B surface antibody would be (+/-) _____, and hepatitis B core antibody would be (+/-) _____.

Hepatitis B surface antigen negative; hepatitis B surface antibody positive; hepatitis B core antibody positive

26

Iin a chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis B surface antigen tests would be (+/-) _____, hepatitis B surface antibody would be (+/-) _____ and hepatitis B core antibody would be (+/-) _____.

Hepatitis B surface antigen positive; hepatitis B surface antibody negative; hepatitis B core antigen positive

27

In an individual immunized against hepatitis B virus infection, hepatitis B surface antigen tests would be (+/-) _____, hepatitis B surface antibody would be (+/-) _____ and hepatitis B core antigen would be (+/-) _____.

Hepatitis B surface antigen negative; hepatitis B surface antibody positive; hepatitis B core antibody negative

28

Why does hepatitis B surface antibody appear negative during the window period after hepatitis B virus infection?

Because all available hepatitis B surface antibody is bound to hepatitis B surface antigen, making it undetectable on assay

29

The p24gag protein is located in the _____ (envelope/matrix/capsid) of HIV.

Capsid

30

Glycoproteins 41 and 120 are located in the _____ (envelope/matrix/capsid) of HIV.

Envelope