Micro - Antimicrobials (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro - Antimicrobials (Part 1) Deck (121)
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1

How do imipenem, aztreonam, and cephalosporins work?

They block cell wall synthesis by inhibiting cross-linking of peptidoglycans

2

How do bacitracin and vancomycin work?

They block peptidoglycan synthesis

3

What antibiotic works by disrupting bacterial/fungal cell membranes?

Polymyxins

4

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim work by blocking the synthesis of what molecules?

Nucleotides

5

How do fluoroquinolones exhibit their antibacterial effects?

DNA topoisomerase inhibition

6

Rifampin blocks the synthesis of what bacterial molecule?

mRNAs

7

Chloramphenicol works by what mechanism?

It binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit and blocks the synthesis of protein

8

Lincosamides work by what mechanism?

They bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit and block the synthesis of protein

9

Streptogramins work by what mechanism?

They bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit and block the synthesis of protein

10

Linezolid works by what mechanism?

It binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit and blocks the synthesis of protein

11

Macrolides work by what mechanism?

They bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit and block the synthesis of protein

12

Tetracyclines work by what mechanism?

They bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and block the synthesis of protein

13

Aminoglycosides work by what mechanism?

They bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit and block the synthesis of protein

14

Name six antibiotics that are bacteriostatic.

Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Sulfamethoxazole, Trimethoprim, Tetracyclines, and Chloramphenicol (remember: were ECSTaTiC about bacteriostatics)

15

Name six antibiotics that are bactericidal.

Vancomycin, Fluoroquinolones, Penicillin, Aminoglocysides, Cephalosporins, and Metronidazole (remember: Very Finely Proficient At Cell Murder)

16

Penicillin _____ is administered intravenously; penicillin _____ is administered orally.

G; V

17

Penicillin is the prototype for which class of antibiotics?

β-Lactams

18

Penicillin blocks _____ to inhibit cross-linking and activates _____ enzymes as well.

Transpeptidase; autolytic

19

Which types of bacteria are killed by penicillin?

Gram-positive cocci and rods, gram-negative cocci and spirochetes; bacteria with penicillinase are resistant

20

What are the two major toxicities associated with penicillin treatment?

Hypersensitivity reactions and hemolytic anemia

21

Methicillin, nafcillin, and dicloxacillin have the same mechanism of action as what class of antibiotics?

Penicillins

22

What differentiates methicillin, nafcillin, and dicloxacillin from penicillin?

Methicillin, nafcillin, and dicloxacillin are resistant to penicillinase and are effective against bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus

23

Methicillin, nafcillin, and dicloxacillin are resistant to penicillinase as a result of what difference in their structure?

A bulkier R group

24

Methicillin, nafcillin, and dicloxacillin are narrow-spectrum antibiotics that are used clinically for the treatment of what conditions?

Staphylococcus aureus infections, except methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (remember: naf for staph)

25

Why are nafcillin and dicloxacillin ineffective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus?

Because of altered penicillin-binding protein target sites

26

What are the two major toxicities associated with methicillin treatment?

Hypersensitivity reactions and interstitial nephritis

27

Which drug can be administered with ampicillin to make it more effective against penicillinase-producing organisms?

Clavulanic acid, an inhibitor of penicillinase

28

Which has greater oral availability: amoxicillin or ampicillin?

AmOxicillin has better Oral availability

29

Which drugs have a wider spectrum of effectiveness: ampicillin/amoxicillin or penicillin?

Ampicillin and amoxicillin have a broader spectrum of effectiveness (remember: AMPicillin is Amped up penicillin)

30

What are the three major toxicities caused by ampicillin and amoxicillin?

Hypersensitivity reactions, rash, and pseudomembranous colitis