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Flashcards in Micro - Clinical Bacteriology Deck (160)
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1

What are the two functions of the peptidoglycan layer in bacteria?

Rigid support and protection against osmotic damage

2

What is the chemical composition of the bacterial peptidoglycan layer?

A sugar backbone with cross-linked peptide side chains

3

What is the major surface antigen in gram-positive bacteria?

Cell wall

4

Which two cytokines does teichoic acid induce?

Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1

5

What structure in gram-negative bacteria induces tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1?

The lipid A component of lipopolysaccharide

6

What is the major surface antigen in gram-negative bacteria?

Outer membrane (polysaccharide component of lipopolysaccharide)

7

Where is endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) located in gram-negative bacteria?

In the outer membrane

8

Which bacterium has a nonpolysaccharide capsule?

Bacillus anthracis (which has D-glutamate)

9

_____ are bacterial structures that mediate adherence to the host cell surface and are composed of glycoprotein.

Fimbriae (pili)

10

What bacterial structure establishes attachment between two bacteria during conjugation?

Sex pili

11

_____ are bacterial structures that provide motility and are composed of protein.

Flagella

12

What bacterial structure provides resistance to desiccation, heat, and chemicals?

Spores

13

What is the chemical composition of a spore?

Keratin-like coat and dipicolinic acid

14

What kind of genetic information is stored in the bacterial plasmid?

Genes for antibiotic resistance, enzymes, and toxins

15

What structure aids bacteria in adhering to foreign objects, such as indwelling catheters?

Glycocalyx

16

What is the chemical composition of glycocalyx?

Polysaccharide

17

What structures are common to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria?

Flagellum, pilus, capsule, peptidoglycan, and cytoplasmic membrane

18

What structure is unique to gram-positive organisms?

Teichoic acid

19

What structures are unique to gram-negative organisms?

Outer membrane (endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide)-lactamases in periplasmic space

20

What is between the capsule and peptidoglycan layers in gram-negative organisms?

The outer membrane (which contains endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide)

21

What is the difference between the peptidoglycan layer of gram-positive organisms and that of gram-negative organisms?

The peptidoglycan layer in gram-positive bacteria is much thicker than that of gram-negative bacteria

22

What is between the inner cytoplasmic and outer membranes in gram-negative organisms?

Periplasmic space (the location of many enzymes, including -lactamases)

23

Name the two major gram positive cocci.

Staphyloccus and Streptococcus

24

What are the major gram negative cocci?

Neisseria

25

Clostridium is a _____ (gram positive/gram negative) _____ (coccus/bacillus) .

Gram positive bacillus

26

Corynebacterium is a _____ (gram positive/gram negative) _____ (coccus/bacillus).

Gram positive bacillus

27

Listeria is a _____ (gram positive/gram negative) _____ (coccus/bacillus).

Gram positive bacillus

28

What unique staining characteristic do Mycobacterium and Nocardia possess?

Mycobacterium and Nocardia are acid fast

29

Haemophilus is a _____ (gram positive/gram negative) _____ (coccus/bacillus).

Gram negative bacillus

30

Legionella is a _____ (gram positive/gram negative) _____ (cocci/bacillus).

Gram negative bacillus