Flashcards in Franklin D Roosevelt and the New Deal Deck (22)
What were Roosevelts aims?
R - relief (help the lives of people)
R - recovery (to begin to rebuild US industry and trade)
R - reform (to change conditions to ensure future progress)
Why was Roosevelt elected in 1932?
- He wasn't Herbert Hoover
- He was determined - he beat polio
- He promised help and support for the depression through the New Deal
- He traveled around America doing speeches.
What did Roosevelt do in his first 100 days.
- He ended prohibition
- He resolved the banking crisis through the emergency banking act
- He did a number of fireside chats
- He set up the first New Deal which included a number of alphabet agencies.
What was the Emergency Banking Act?
The Emergency Banking Act resolved the banking crisis. What Roosevelt did was, he closed all the banks in America for 4 days (a 4 day bank holiday). During those 4 days, a number of inspections was carried out at each bank to see if it was stable enough to be re-opened. After those 4 days, on the stable banks re-opened.
What were Roosevelt's "fireside chats"?
Roosevelt's fireside chat was when Roosevelt broadcasted to the nation telling them about what the government was doing which then created a sense of relief and confidence for the public in their government.
Who were the NRA?
- The NRA stands for National Recovery Administration.
- The NRA worked with workers to set minimum wages and maximum working hours.
- The NRA also helped to stop child and sweated labor in America.
- Not only this, but the NRA set a number of regulations for businesses in America.
Who were the PWA?
- The PWA stands for Public Works Administration.
- The PWA worked to help then employed.
- The PWA build 70% of America's schools as well as 35% of America's hospitals.
- Overall, the PWA helped 8 million people.
Who were the CCC?
- The CCC stands for Civilian Corps Conservation.
- The CCC worked with the unemployed.
- The CCC worked in forestry and also helped to restore ancient artifacts.
- The CCC also provided food and shelter for the unemployed.
- The CCC also helped 8,000 women.
- As well as benefiting 200,000 Black Americans.
Who were the TVA?
- The TVA stands for Tennessee Valley Authority.
- The TVA worked to help those in Tennessee.
- The TVA built 33 dams.
The TVA provided cheap electricity through power stations.
- The TVA also provided 1000's of jobs.
Who were the CWA?
- The CWA stands for Civil Works Administration.
- The CWA helped the skilled and unskilled unemployed.
- The CWA worked on improving and building roads as well as public toilets.
- The CWA built around 40,000 schools overall.
Who were the AAA?
- The AAA stands for Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
- The AAA helped farmers all over the USA.
- The AAA paid farmers to limit food production to help them stop overproduction.
- Due to the AAA's help, in 1939, farmers income doubled.
What was the Wagner Act?
- The Wagner Act was the follow on from the NRA and was part of the Second New Deal.
- The Wagner Act allowed workers to be part of trade unions.
The Wagner Act also made employers let their workers be part of trade unions.
What was the Social Security Act?
- The Social Security Act was similar to the British Old Age Pension Act.
- The Social Security Act gave those 65 and over pensions.
- The Social Security Act also set up employment benefits.
- It also helped the sick and disabled/handicapped.
Who opposed the New Deal?
- The Supreme Court
- Dr Francis Townsend
- Huey Long
- Father Charles Coughlin
Why did Republicans oppose the New Deal?
- They thought that Roosevelt was doing too much.
- They believed in "Laissez-faire" which means leave well alone.
- They thought that the New Deal made the American public rely on the government.
- They believed in "rugged individualism" which is where people do things for themselves.
Why did Businessmen oppose the New Deal?
- They thought the government was doing too much.
- They didn't like the fact that the NRA and the Wagner Act allowed and encouraged workers to be a part of trade unions.
Why did the Supreme Court oppose the New Deal?
- In May 1925, the Schechter Poultry Corporation was found guilty of breaking the NRA's regulations such as exploiting workers and selling diseased chickens. The NRA appealed to the Supreme court but the court ruled that they had no right to interfere with businesses because the court was mainly made up of Republicans. Roosevelt was angry that they court had gone against the laws that he had passed. Roosevelt then asked the Congress to give him more power by appointing 6 more Supreme court judges who were more sympathetic towards the New Deal. Roosevelt misjudged the public mood and backed down. The Supreme court were now less obstructive in the future.
Why did Dr Francis Townsend oppose the New Deal?
- He formed the Union party alongside Father Charles Coughlin.
- He came up with a "Townsend plan"
- The "Townsend plan meant that each person 60+ was given $200 a month in return for the promise that they'd retire and spend all of the money each month.
Why did Huey Long oppose the New Deal?
- He thought the government wasn't doing enough.
- He believed in a "share our wealth policy".
- Within this policy, he wanted to place high taxes on the rich and give money to the poor.
- He was going to go up against Roosevelt in the election in 1936, but he was assassinated in 1935.
Why did Father Charles Coughlin oppose the New Deal?
- He formed the Union party along side Dr Francis Townsend.
- He though that the New Deal wasn't providing enough social justice.
- He was well known as the "radio priest"
What were the successes of the New Deal?
- The New Deal restored faith of the American people in their government.
- It restored confidence back into America.
- The NRA helped with workers rights and working conditions.
- The Wagner Act allowed workers to be part of trade unions.
- The CCC helped 8000 women.
- The CCC benefited 200,000 Black Americans.
- The PWA helped 8 million people.
- The New Deal helped and employed millions of Americans.
- The CCC employed 1000's.
- The TVA improved standard of living.