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History: Modern World, paper 1 > The League of Nations > Flashcards

Flashcards in The League of Nations Deck (23)
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What were the aims of the League of Nations?

D - disarmament
I - improve social conditions and peoples lives
E - enforce the Treaty of Versailles
S - stop war


Which country never joined the League of Nations?

The USA.


Why didn't the USA join the League of Nations?

- As many Americans disagreed with the Treaty of Versailles and because the League of Nations was linked to the Treaty of Versailles, they disagreed with the League too.
- America wanted to stay out of European affairs and focus on their own countries business.
- America wanted a policy of isolation so didn't want to get involved in the League.


Why weren't Germany aloud to join the League of Nations?

Germany wasn't aloud to join the League of Nations until she could prove that she could behave herself.


Why didn't they League have it's own army?

The League didn't have its own army because no country was willing to put their army forward especially if it was to fight in battles which don't directly involve them.


What were the names of the different groups in the structure of the League of Nations?

- The Council
- The Assembly
- The Permanent Court of Justice
- The Secretariat
- The International Labour Organisation
- Special Commissions


Who were the Council and what did they do?

- The Council were the most powerful section of the League. They were main powers such as Britain, France, Japan and Italy.
- The Council took major decisions and they met 5 times a year.


Who were the Assembly and what did they do?

- The Assembly were all members of the League and they all had one vote here.
- The Assembly met once a year.


Who were the Secretariats and what did they do?

- The Secretariats carried out the decisions made by the Council so they did the recordings and the meetings.


Who were the Permanent Court of Justice and what did they do?

- The Permanent Court of Justice were 15 judges that met at The Hague in the Netherlands.
- They settled international disputes such as fishing rights.


What did the Refugee Committee do?

The Refugee Committee helped get prisoners of war back to their homes.


What did the Slavery Committee do?

The Slavery Committee work to help end where it still existed.


What did the Health Committee do?

The Health Committee helped to prevent or reduce deadly diseases such as small pox.
They also helped to educate in areas such as sanitation.


What happened in the Vilna in 1920? (a failure)

During the Russo-Polish war, Vilna was occupied by Polish forces. The League was very reluctant to become involved. Taking action against Poland would require armed forces but as the League didn't have any, they couldn't do this. Britain and France also didn't want to upset Poland. The League tried to negotiate a deal, but the Polish forces refused to leave and in 1923 it confirmed Poland's occupation of Vilna.


What happened in Upper Silesia in 1921? (a success)

Upper Silesia contained large numbers of Poles and Germans so both Poland and Germany were determined to get the territory. In the plebiscite held by the League in March 1921, the people voted in favour of Germany by 700,000 votes to 480,000. The League decided to partition the area Germany received over half of the land and population and the Poles had most of the industry. Both countries accepted the decision.


What happened in Corfu in 1923? (a failure)

In August 1923, 5 Italian surveryours who were working for the League of Nations in mapping the Greek-Albanian frontier were killed on the Greek side of the border. Mussolini took advantage of this and demanded compensation from the Greek government. When he didn't get this, he took over Corfu. The League then put pressure on the Greeks to accept Mussolini's demands and only when the Greek's had apologized and paid up did Mussolini leave Corfu.


What happened in Bulgaria in 1925? (a success)

After the Treaty of Neuilly, the border between Greece and Bulgaria remained a course of tension. After a number of violent incidents, Greece invaded Bulgaria in October 1925. The League then intervened and condemned the Greek action and pressurised them to withdraw which they did.


What happened in Manchuria 1931-1933?

There was an explosion on the 18th September 1931 on the Southern Manchurian railway. The Japanese insisted it was the Chinese but the Chinese denied this. Japanese forces then took over the railway. The Chinese called for the League of Nations help and then told the Japanese forces to leave but this was ignored. It then took a year for the Lord Lytton report to be made and the Japanese's response to the report was that they ignored it and then left the League.


Why did the League fail in Manchuria?

- It took a year to make the Lord Lytton report showing that decisions was slow.
- The League had no army to make the Japanese forces leave Manchuria showing that the League was weak.
- The League overall let the Japanese get away with it which showed Hitler that he could do the same.


What happened in Abyssinia, 1935-1936?

Mussolini invaded Abyssinia to distract problems that was going on in Italy. Both Italy and Abyssinia were members of the League. Britain and France needed Mussolini's friendship as they saw him as a potiencial ally with Germany. French foreign minister, Laval and English, Sir Samuel Hoare made the Hoare-laval plan which gave Italy the fertile land and some land in the south of Abyssinia and it gave the Abyssinian's the mountainous regions. The plan never went ahead but it was leaked to the press and Laval and Hoare were forced to resign. This showed that Britain and France were giving Mussolini what he wanted.


Why did the League fail in Abyssinia?

- The League had no army to stop Mussolini so it was therefore weak.
- The League didn't actually take any action to stop Mussolini as it wasn't stop enough.
- Britain and France came up with the Hoare-Laval plan showed that main members of the league were only interested in themselves, also showing the League was weak.


What does F.A.I.L.U.RE stand for?

F - French and British self interest
A - Absent powers (USA)
I - Ineffective sanctions
L - Lack of armed forces
U - Unfair treaties
RE - reaching decisions too slowly


Why did the League of Nations fail?

- Lack of army
- Reacting to crisis' too slowly
- The League couldn't agree on sanctions
- The Japanese stayed in Manchuria
- Britain and France secretly decided to give Abyssinia to Italy through the Hoare-laval pact
- The League couldn't protect anyone
- Bigger nations took advantage of the League
- Countries could just walk out
- The USA didn't join the League