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The earliest documented emergency service was in...

France in the 1790s.


In 1966, the National Highway Safety Act charged the United States __________ with developing EMS Standard

Department of Transportation


What is the care provided by EMTs, either pre-hospital, on-scene, or in the community called?

Out-of-hospital care.


What is the process of continuous self-review called?

Quality improvement


What is the system for telephone access to report emergencies?

The 911 system


What is the physician who assumes ultimate responsibility for medical direction called?

Medical Director.


What is the oversight given by the Medical Director for patient-care aspects of the EMS system called?

Medical direction.


What are the lists of steps developed by the Medical Director for assessment and interventions to be performed in different situations called?



What is the system that automatically identifies the caller's phone number and location?

The enhanced 911 system


What is the role of an EMT giving authority to give medications and provide emergency care under the Medical Director's license called?

Designated agent.


What are the protocols issued by the Medical Director that authorize EMTs and others to perform particular skills in certain situations called?

Standing orders.


What are standing orders issued by the Medical Director that allow EMTs to give certain medications of perform certain procedures without speaking to the on-staff physician called?

Off-line medical direction.


What are the orders from the on-duty physician to an EMT in the field by radio or telephone called?

On-line medical direction


What is the term concerning the long-term survival of patients, not only the short-term results?

Patient outcomes.


Techniques or practices supported by scientific evidence of safety and efficacy rather than on supposition and tradition are called...

Evidence-based techniques.


What are the four levels of the EMS system.

1. Emergency Medical Responder
2. EMT-basic
3. Advanced EMT
4. Paramedic


What are the five types of specialty hospitals?

Cardiac centers
Stroke centers
Pediatric centers
Trauma centers
Burn centers


What are at least five of the major components of the EMS system assessment standards?

- regulation and policy
- resource management
- human resources and training
- trauma systems
- public information and education
- communications
- transportation
- facilities
- evaluation
- medical direction


Being the voice, or speaking up, for your patient is called...

Patient advocacy