Exam 7 Special Senses 70X Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 7 Special Senses 70X Deck (50)
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1

What is the conscious or subconscious awareness of external or internal stimuli?

Sensation

2

Impulses that reach the thalamus provide what type of awareness of the sensation?

Crude awareness of location and type of sensation

3

Impulses that reach the cerebral cortex enable type of awareness of the sensation?

Precise location of the stimulus, as well as type of stimulus

4

What is the conscious awareness and interpretation of the meaning of sensations?

Perception

5

There is no perception of sensory impulses that do not reach what?

Thalamus and cerebral cortex

6

What is a sensory modality?

Unique type of sensation:
-Touch
-Pain
-Vision
-Hearing

7

An individual sensory neuron will carry information for how many modalities?

Only ONE type of Modality

8

What are the two classes the sensory modalities are grouped?

General Senses
Special Senses

9

What senses are included into the General Senses class?

Somatic Senses
Visceral Senses

10

What modalities are included in the General Senses class?

-Tactile Sensations: Touch, Pressure, Vibration, Itch, Tickle
-Thermal Sensations: Warm, Cold, Hot
-Pain Sensations
-Proprioceptive Sensations
-Dynamic Sensations: movements of limbs and head

11

What sensation provides information about conditions within internal organs?

Visceral Sensations (of the General Sense Class)

12

Visceral sensation is usually not appreciated at what level of awareness?

Conscious level of awareness (other than as "feeling good" or "feeling bad")

13

What modalities are included in the Special senses class?

Smell
Taste
Vision
Hearing
Equilibrium

14

What are the two different kinds of graded potentials that are produced by sensory receptors?

Generator Potentials
Receptor Potentials
(Amplitude of both types varies directly w/intensity of stimulus)

15

Generator potential are produced by dendrites of what?

-Free Nerve Endings
-Encapsulated Nerve Endings
-Receptive Part of Olfactory Receptors

16

Most sensory receptors exhibit ADAPTATION, which refers to what?

Decrease in generator potential or receptor potential amplitude when exposed to continuous constant stimulus over a long term

17

What causes the perception of a sensation to fade or disappear, even though the true magnitude of the stimulus has not changed?

Adaptation (of sensory receptors)

18

What receptors are rapidly adapting receptors and quickly stop firing in response to a constant stimulus?

Meissner's Corpuscles
Pacinian Corpuscles

19

What receptors are slowly adapting receptors and continue to fire in response to constant stimulus?

Merkel's disks
Ruffini Endings

20

What type of sensation arises from stimulation of sensory receptors embedded in the skin or subcutaneous layer, mucous membranes, muscles, tendons, joint, and inner ear.

Somatic Sensations

21

Somatic sensations that arise from stimulating the surface of the skin are termed what?

Cutaneous Sensations

22

What are the four modalities of Somatic Sensation?

Tactile
Thermal
Pain
Proprioceptive

23

What modalities are included in (or comprise) Tactile Sensations?

Touch
Pressure
Vibration
Itch
Tickle

24

Tactile sensations arise to a great degree by activation of the same structural type of receptor, What type of tactile sensation stimulate Free nerve endings and Encapsulated Nerve Endings?

Free Nerve Endings:
-Itch
-Tickle
Encapsulated Nerve Endings:
-Touch
-Pressure
-Vibration

25

Touch sensations are usually due to stimulation of what?

Tactile receptors in the skin or subcutaneous layer

26

What kind of touch: is the ability to perceive that something has contacted the skin, but its location, shape, size, and texture can not be ascertained

Crude Touch

27

Define: Fine Touch

Specific information about the location touched, and shape, size, and texture of the source of stimulation

28

What sensation is interpreted from sustained sensation felt over a larger area than touch occurring w/ deformation of deeper tissues than does touch? What does this mean for these receptors?

Pressure
-Pressure receptors can be deeper

29

What receptors are free nerve endings found in every tissue of the body except the brain?

Pain Receptors

30

What term is used for Pain receptors? What type of adaptation do they have?

Nociceptors
-Exhibit very little adaptation