Exam 4 Regional Anatomy; Vascularization Head & Neck; Axial Skeleton Flashcards Preview

A&P I IPAP 3-17 > Exam 4 Regional Anatomy; Vascularization Head & Neck; Axial Skeleton > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4 Regional Anatomy; Vascularization Head & Neck; Axial Skeleton Deck (157)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the arteries that furnish blood to the brain? (They are paired)

-Vertebral Arteries
-Internal Carotid Arteries

2

How many vertebrae are in each of the vertebral regions?

Cervical-- 7
Thoracic-- 12
Lumbar-- 5
Sacrum-- 5 fused
Coccyx-- 4 fused

3

What are the four normal vertebral curves?

-Cervical & Lumbar (Anteriorly convex curves)
-Thoracic & Sacral (Anteriorly concave curves)

4

Intervertebral discs are found where?

2nd Cervical (axis) to sacrum

5

What is characterized by an abnormal increase in the thoracic curvature?

Kyphosis

6

Kyphosis may results from what?

Erosion of the anterior part of one or more vertebrae (demineralization resulting from osteoporosis)

7

What is characterized by an anterior rotation of the pelvis at the hip joints producing an abnormal increase in lumbar curvature?

Lordosis

8

What are some associated causes of Lordosis?

-Weakened trunk musculature
-Late pregnancy
-Obestity

9

What is characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature that is accompanied by rotation of the vertebrae?

Scoliosis

10

Which abnormal curvature is the most common deformity in pubertal girls?

Scoliosis

11

This abnormal curvature has the spinous processes turn toward the cavity of the abnormal curvature and the ribs protrude when bending over?

Scoliosis

12

What are the different structural parts of a vertebra?

Vertebral processes
Vertebral Arch
Vertebral Body

13

What is the name of the cervical vertebra that supports the skull and is the first cervical vertebra?

Atlas

14

Which cervical vertebra allows for side-to-side rotation of the head?

Axis

15

What transmits the vertebral arteries?

Transverse Foramina

16

What are the two craniovertebral joints?

Atlanto-occipital Joint- (Atlas & Occipital Bone)
Atlantoaxial Joint- (Atlas & Axis)

17

What type of joint are the craniovertebral joints?

Synovial Joint

18

This is a ring of bone & has the superior facets for the occipital condyles?

Atlas

19

This cervical vertebra has the dens (odontoid) process as the body?

Axis

20

What is the name of the strong ligament extending between right & left tubercles of C1 & holds the dens of C2 against the anterior arch of C1, forming the posterior wall of a socket for the dens?

Transverse Ligament

21

The Thoracic aorta supplies branches to what?

Pericardium
Esophagus
Bronchi
Diaphragm
Intercostal
Chest Muscles
Mammary Gland
Skin
Vertebrae
Spinal Cord

22

What are the paired arteries that supply blood to the brain?

Vertebral Arteries
Internal Carotid Arteries

23

The vertebral arteries are direct branches of what?

Subclavian arteries

24

What foramina do the Vertebral arteries travel through heading toward the brain and pass through to get to the brain?

Travel: Transverse Foramina of the cervical vertebrae
Pass: Foramen Magnum

25

What do the vertebral arteries unit to form on the inferior posterior part of the brain?

Basilar Artery (single) on ventral surface of the pons

26

What arteries are branches of the common carotid artery and enter the skull through the carotid foramen (Carotid Canal)?

Internal Carotid Arteries

27

The Internal Carotid Arteries & External Carotid Arteries are branches of what?

Common carotid arteries (right & left sides)

28

The internal carotid arteries travel to inferior anterior surface of the brain and contribute to what?

Formation of CIRCLE OF WILLIS
-Supply blood to eyeballs & brain

29

The external carotid arteries supply blood to what structures?

Structures of the external skull as branches of maxillary & superficial temporal branches

30

What is the most important anastomosis in the body that connects posterior & anterior blood supplies to the brain?

Arterial Circle of Willis