Exam #2: Nursing Knowledge, Culture, and Teaching Flashcards Preview

Nursing 2000 > Exam #2: Nursing Knowledge, Culture, and Teaching > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam #2: Nursing Knowledge, Culture, and Teaching Deck (20)
Loading flashcards...

Critical Thinking

"a process by which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully taking charge of the structures inherent in thinking and imposing intellectual standards upon them"


Qualities of a critical thinker

-raises questions
-gathers/assesses relevant data
-arrives at solution --> tests them against relevant standards
-open minded
-communicates effectively with others


Clinical Reasoning

"a cognitive process used to understand the significance of pt data, to identify and diagnose actual/potential patient problems, to make clinical decisions to assist in problem resolution, and to achieve positive pt outcomes"
-->Help understand relevance to certain pt in certain scenario


Goals of Nursing

1. to promote health – encouraging healthy diet, exercise, drinking to a minmum
2. to prevent illness – turning pt, oral care
3. to restore health – assist with acute/chronic illness
4. to facilitate coping – cope with chronic illness


What is the nursing process?

→ achieve pt centered, goal-oriented care
1. Assessment
2. Analysis (Diagnosis)
3. Planning
4. Implementation
5. Evaluation



FIRST step in nursing process
-gathering subjective/objective data (from pt, family, history)
-confirming data (is the pt scared, are they in pain? → does this change the validity of the data)
-organizing data (make sense of the data)
-communicating/documenting data (timely, legible, etc)


Analysis (Diagnosis)

SECOND step in nursing process`
-difficult b/c it requires understand principles of responses/interpretations of data
-requires critical thinking/determining rational for interventions
-formulation of a nursing diagnosis/communication/documentation of the process of analysis
-identify actual/potential diagnoses → prioritize needs



THIRD step in nursing process
-determining goals/outcomes – measurable/realistic (short/long term)
-developing plan of care (specific, including nursing plan of care, cater to pt)
-communicating/documenting the plan



FOURTH step in nursing process
-organizing/managing care
-providing care to achieve established goals
-supervising/coordinating care
-communicating and documenting nursing interventions
→ may delegate not carry all steps out



FIFTH step in nursing process
-comparing actual outcome with expected outcome (was the goal met? What was effective?)
-evaluate the pt ability to implement self-care or the health team members' ability to implement care
-evaluate need for change in plan of care (adjust outcome/nursing interventions?)


Clinical Judgment

-informed opinion/decisions based on empirical knowledge and experience
-develops over time with increased knowledge base/exposure to clinical scenarios
-allows you to anticipate pt needs/potential complications
→ putting all of the pieces of the puzzle together (using basic knowledge/general education and putting together with nursing knowledge)


Developing Clinical Judgment

-uses references
-use nursing process
-assess/set priorities systematically
-refuse to act without knowledge
-use resources wisely
-know standards of care
-know technology/equipment
-give pt-centered care (keep them in mind, include them in healthcare team)


Cultural Humility

developing a respectful partnership of diverse groups, individuals, and communities



a pattern of learned behaviors and values that are reinforced through social interactions, shared by members of a particular group, and transmitted from one generation to the next


Cultural Competency

nurses should provide "services that are respectful of and responsive to the health beliefs and practices and cultural and linguistic needs of diverse patient populations."


Helpful Hints for Cultural Competency

1. need to avoid stereotyping
2. understand differences in communication, personal space, and time frames
3. understand medications may work differently related to genetics/ethnic background
4. perform a cultural assessment on pts to improve quality care


What is the purpose of teaching patients?

-increases pt knowledge of new illness/intervention
-assists pts in coping with health issues
-improves pt outcomes


What factors affect pt learning?

-readiness to learn
-relevance of content
-health status
-cultural aspects


What is the teaching process?

1. assess current knowledge level, learning strengths/deficits, barriers, preferred learning style, learning capabilities
2. develop individualized
-maximize teaching environment (turn TV off, have visitors leave, etc)
3. implement teaching
4. evaluate teaching
5. document teaching session


Tips for teaching pts

-begin simple --> complex (what’s the definition/causes/pathophysiology/treatment, etc)
-short teaching sessions
-actively engage pt (additional materials, videos, items to help them learn/practice treatments)
-repetition! (repeat back information, review contents → help them retain it)
-keep content at 4th grade level (most can understand at this level
-provide feedback (let them know if you feel they are fully understanding)