Exam #3: Theory and Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #3: Theory and Research Deck (27)
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1

Nursing Theory

“a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that describe a certain view of nursing phenomena (observable occurrences) from which to describe, explain, or predict outcomes.”

2

What is the purpose of nursing theory?

-provide a framework on which to build new nursing knowledge
-analyze/synthesize known data and work it into frameworks
-assists with reasoning, critical thinking, and decision making
-helps guide practice to produce quality outcomes

3

What are the types of nursing theory?

1. Grand Theory
2. Mid-range Theory

4

Grand Theory

*type of nursing theory
-most comprehensive, applying to the entire domain of nursing

Components: person, health, environment, nursing
• Define all these related to grand nursing theory

5

Mid-Range Theory

narrower focus, more concrete, target specific practice questions
-Empirically measurable, testable form, limited scope, research/practice
-Theories: health promotion, uncertainty, quality of nursing care, hardiness, pain management, family care-giving

6

Dorothea Orem

-->self-care model
-self-care deficits, and nursing systems
-people have a NEED to maintain self-care
-inadequate? Nursing can come in and assist

7

Martha Rogers

--> promoted the unitary human being
-person = unitary environmental field constantly interacting with environment
-nurse can assist in interaction between this energy and environment

8

Sister Callista Roy

--> Adaptation Model: person is adaptive system
-person adapts behavior to internal/external stimuli
-disrupt equilibrium = sickness

9

Jean Watson

--> human caring
-caring is universal social behavior, nursing provides this through humanistic actions

10

Pure Science vs. Applied Science

Pure:
-formal (math/logic)
-natural (physics, chem)
-psychosocial (psychology, econ)

Applied:
--> application of pure sciences
-engineering
-medicine
-agriculture

11

Nursing Science

a coherent body of knowledge composed of research findings and tested theories systematically developed for the discipline of nursing

12

Nursing Theory

product (discrete body of knowledge)

13

Nursing Research

process (tool by which science is created)

14

Pure Research

--> work done in PURSUIT of knowledge
-may test existing theory, trying new technique, etc

15

Applied Research

--> CREATING new knowledge for a specific purpose
-instrumentation, new inventions/processes → improve quality, development of new drugs

16

Transitional Research

--> takes applied research findings to the healthcare setting
-gives us evidence-based practice nursing

17

Quantitative Research

--> a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information about the world

o Data that is collectable → numbers → statistical formulas → analyzed

18

Qualitative Research

--> systematic, interactive, subjective approach used to describe life experiences and give them meaning

-what pt tells you
• put together to give information on a phenomenon
• determined by what question you are asking

19

What are the steps of the research process?

1. Conceptual Phase
2. Design/Planning Phase
3. Empirical Phase
4. Analytic Phase
5. Dissemination Phase

20

Research Process: Conceptual Phase

→ wanting to create new nursing knowledge
• defining the problem
• reviewing the literature (what do we already know?)
• developing the theoretical framework
• formulating the research hypothesis/question

21

Research Process: Design/Planning Phase

• Defining your research DESIGN
-experimental/non-experimental?

• Identifying the POPULATION to be studied/sampling plan
-how will you access the subjects? haphazard pool/random?

• Specifying data collection METHODS
-who, what, when, where, how
-reliability and validity (is the tool reliable/valid? need this to make a conclusion)
-funding/permission
-obtaining research $$$
-permission sought from IRB (institutional review board)
-pilot study
-testing procedures

22

Research Process: Empirical Phase

1. Collecting the data
-ensuring quality/accuracy
-ethical issues

2. Preparing data for analysis
-storage of data (keep confidential)
-coding (to be statistically analyzed)
-ensuring accuracy

23

Research Process: Analytic Phase

1. Analyzing the data
-May need statistical consultants

2. Interpreting results
-critical review of the work
-relating findings to theory in study
-confirmation or rebutting of the existing literature
-conclusions/implications for future research, education, and practice

24

Research Process: Dissemination Phase

1. Communicating findings
-conferences, journals, books, media
-in order to help profession of nursing

2. Utilizing findings
-changing practice to increase quality for healthcare

25

Translational Research Process

1. Defining the question (in the clinical setting, what is the issue at hand?)

2. Collecting evidence to answer question
-go to literature and find potential solutions

3. Formal evaluation of evidence gathered
-what is quality of literature? can they be applied?

4. Choosing a solution

5. Integration of evidence into practice setting

6. Evaluation of process
-was it effective

26

Levels of Evidence

Level 1: ideas, editorials, opinion papers

Level 2: case studies and reports of unusual happenings

Level 3: info based on lab studies

Level 4: info based on animal studies

Level 5: small short studies involving human subjects (pilot studies)

Level 6: complex studies with human subjects

Level 7: clinical trials (gold-standard)

27

Why can't we do a research project on the correlation between smoking and lung cancer?

cannot do research to subject volunteers to risks of smoking → NO level 7 research