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1

Who was Florence Nightingale?

"founder of modern nursing"
-inspected hospitals, studied sanitary report and wrote books on public health

2

What were some of Florence Nightingale's accomplishments?

1853- became superintendent of a charity hospital
1854- took nurses to assist in military hospital during Crimean War in Turkey
-first nurse researcher
1860- established first nurse training school

3

What ideologies did Florence Nightingale believe in?

-believed nurses were present to nurse, separation between nursing and medicine
-equal compensation with men for equal work

4

Who did Nightingale believe should be in charge of nurses?

nurse supervisor (not physicians)

5

What principles did Nightingale stress?

importance of assessment/reporting for continuity of care
sick nursing vs. health nursing (prevention)

6

Nursing in Pre-Civil War

similar to European standards - nurses didn't have any formal education

7

Who was Dorothea Dix?

-increased care for the mentally ill
-founded a state instituted mental hospital (no real improvement in treatment for psych pts)
*appointed superintendent of union nurses during Civil War

8

Nursing during the Civil War

-unorganized, lay nurses provided care (army)
-little support from physicians
-large military hospitals (over 300,000 beds)

9

Clara Barton in Civil War

known for cure of injured soldiers
Red Cross

10

Harriott Tubman in Civil War

cared for union soldiers

11

Development of Nursing School

1869- AMA recommended training
1872- New England Hospital initiated primitive program (intense one year 7 days/week)
1873- 3 formal nursing schools (Bellevue, Connecticut, Boston Training Schools)
1891- 1st training school for black nurses (Providence Hospital)

12

Who were graduates of the New England Hospital nursing program?

Linda Richards (1873)
Mary Mahoney (1879)

13

What were the three formal nursing schools instituted in 1873?

Bellevue Training School
Connecticut Training School
Boston Training School

14

Nursing in the early 1900s

immigration increased --> large cities with slums, increased vermin, overcrowding, decreased sanitation
-nurses: did private duty in homes or provided care on street
*Lillian Ward
1893- American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nursing = maintain school standards
1896- Nursing Associated Alumnae of the US/Canada for ALL nurses
1900- American Journal of Nursing
1903- legislation passed to register nurses
Army Nurse Corps established

15

Lillian Ward

left med school to provide care for poor
-increased public health rate
-established school of nursing (1902)
-president of National Organization for Public Health Nursing

16

Nursing Pre-WWI

1912- National Organization for Public Health Nursing
*Margaret Sanger: 1st birth control education clinic
-nurse anesthetist role established

17

Margaret Sanger

opened first birth control education clinic in US, many died from abortion at this time

18

Nurses during WWII

-nursing recruitment standards decreased and need for nurses increased (many didn't want to be nurses for the strenuous work/long hours)
-poor military hospital conditions
-Army Nursing School created

19

Nursing during the Great Depression

-19th amendment (women's right to vote)
-poor image of nursing
-Yale Nursing School --> first sole nursing school under University umbrella
-increased nursing discrimination of men/blacks

20

What was the Frontier Nursing Service?

Mary Breckinridge- saw maternal mortality increasing, wanted to provide more prenatal care
-worked in Appalachian Mountains, poor community
-increased maternal death rates (10,000 times todays)
-1925: established nursing birthing service in homes

21

Who was Mary Breckinridge?

the founder of the Frontier Nursing Service

22

Nursing during WWII

-Cadet Nurse Crops
-inactive nurses returned to work to help war effort
-nurse assistant jobs opened b/c of shortage
-Nurse POWS
-1947: female nurses received full commissioned status in military (same pay as men)

23

Nursing Post-WWII

-increase in nurse assistants/practical nurses
-concept of "team" nursing evolved
-flight nursing
1950- NLN accredits nursing schools
1952- AD initiated (associate degree nurse)
1965- ANA's position paper on Education for nursing made BSN minimum professional nurse standard

24

Modern Nursing

1986- Medicare DRGs: told hospital how much money they would receive based on pt dx --> shorter stays, increased outpatient treatment
-nursing shortage: increased graduate nursing education/increased nurse roles

25

Today's Nurses

3.1 million in US
-mostly female
-avg age in 1980 (40), avg age today (45.5)
-mostly caucasian, greatest disparity in hispanic nurses
-Aging of America--> more potential for chronic illnesses
-Increased demand--> b/c of increased population/age of population

26

What is the public image of nursing?

-trustworthy
-not associated with power
-advocates of health/safety
-RNs increase quality of healthcare (untapped resource)

27

What is the media image of nursing?

-Drs handmaid
-sexy nurse
-mean nurse (pain inflicter)
-MASH increased image
-ER neg image

28

How do we improve the image of nursing?

1. be visible at work
2. be educated
3. be active

29

Mizzou Nursing

1901: est. Parker Memorial Hospital
1940: approved BSN curriculum
1975: Nursing School became separate division
---> 1994: became Sinclair

30

What is Flexner’s Criteria?

ten classic criteria used as a standard to identify characteristics of a profession → nursing meets most of criteria