exam 2 Flashcards Preview

Exam 4 > exam 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in exam 2 Deck (76)
Loading flashcards...
1

cessation or temporary interruption of motion, exertion, or labor.

rest

2

the natural periodic suspension of consciousness during which the powers of the body are restored.

sleep

3

what are the purposes of sleep and rest?

1. Restoration and repair of the body
2. Strengthening of the immune system
3. Facilitates memory storage
Improves learning
4. Improves coping ability
5. Maintenance of normal
weight and processing
of carbohydrates

4

Take longer to fall asleep
Sleep arousal periods are longer and
more frequent
Disrupters of sleep – nocturia, pain
- more sleep required to feel rested
Stage IV may be absent or greatly reduced

older adult-65+

5

A daily cycle of biological activity based on a 24-
hour period
Regulated in the hypothalamus

circadian rhythm

6

sleep proved disorders include?

• Coronary Artery Disease
• Asthma
• COPD
• Diabetes Mellitus
• Gastric and Intestinal Ulcers

7

sleep disorders characterized by a disturbance in the normal pattern or rhythm of sleep.

dyssomnias

8

sleep disorders characterized by undesirable motor, verbal, or experiential phenomenon.

parasomnias

9

• Definition: A period cessation of breathing
during sleep
• Frequency: 5 to 30 times per hour
• Length: few seconds to minutes
• Types:
Obstructive: from airway obstruction
Central: dysfunction in the respiratory control
center of the brain
Mixed: Combo of the two above types

sleep apnea

10

the result of a prolonged sleep disturbance,
such as insomnia
• Can be NREM or REM deprivation
• Also a NANDA approved nursing diagnosis
• Signs and Symptoms:
• Prolonged: Delusions, Paranoia, Weakened Immune
System

sleep deprivation

11

excessive daytime sleeping
Causes: Usually caused by another sleep disorder
which prevents night-time sleeping, such as sleep
apnea or insomnia
May also be the result of another disorder –
kidney or liver disease, DM, depression
Treatments: find and treat the cause

hypersomnias

12

A disorder characterized by sudden and
uncontrollable attacks of deep sleep
• Narcoleptics can sleep well at night but frequently
have other sleep disorders as well
• Can also have cataplexy
• Each episode the patient falls immediately into REM
sleep and can have very vivid dreams
• Thought to be caused by an inability of the brain to
regulate the sleep and wake cycles
• Treatments: CNS stimulants, Safety interventions

narcolepsy

13

They are CNS depressants

Benzodiazepines

14

• Newest Class of Drugs for Sleep
• Target specific sleep receptors vs. entire CNS
system
• Shorter ½ life – Less chance of a ‘hangover’ effect
• Two different types…

hypnotics

15

arthritis, HTN, hearing impairments,
heart conditions, visual impairments, musculoskeletal
impairments, diabetes, chronic sinusitis, hay fever,
allergic rhinitis and varicose veins

10 most common conditions affecting those aged 65 and older

16

the scientific study of the aging process
focusing on determining answers about normal aging
processes

gerontology

17

the medical specialty dealing with diagnosis
and treatment of diseases affecting the elderly

geriatrics

18

applies the nursing process to older adults to achieve a level of wellness consistent with the limitations imposed by aging

gerontological nursing

19

Biological theories of aging include?

*stochastic theories
*non-stochastic theories

20

aka Damage or Error theories

*stochastic theories

21

aka Programmed theories

*non-stochastic theories

22

• Wear and Tear theory
• Rate of Living theory
• Cross-linking theory
• Free Radicals theory
• DNA Damage theory

stochastic theories

23

• Programmed Longevity theory
• Endocrine theory
• Immunological theory

*non-stochastic theories

24

Normal aging changes include?

*Perfusion
*Oxygenation
*Immunity
*Mobility
*Neural Regulation and Cognition
*Nutrition
*Elimination
*Child bearing
*Sensory perception

25

DECREASED:
– Cardiac Output
– Vessel Elasticity
– Baroreceptor function
INCREASED:
– Blood pressure (>140/90)
– Peripheral Vascular Resistance
– Time for heart rate to return to
it’s resting rate

Perfusion

26

Decreased :
– Lung Capacity
– Respiratory muscle strength and
flexibility
– # and Ability of Alveoli (Gas
Exchange)
– Cough reflex
Increased:
– Airway Resistance
– Risk of Infection

Oxygenation

27

Decreased:
– Immune Response
Antibody Response
T-cell production
Increased:
– Risk of Autoimmune Disorders
– Risk of Cancers
What would this mean for our patients?
Increased susceptibility to infections

Immunity

28

Decreased:
– Muscle mass and strength
– Bone Density and Strength
– Flexibility of the Joints
– Size of Vertebral discs
– Height

mobility

29

Decreased:
– Size and # of Neurons
– Rate of Conduction
Reaction time, Reflexes
– Nerves/Sensation
– Rate of thinking
– Memory
– Attention Span and
Concentration

Neural Regulation and Cognition

30

Decreased:
– Saliva
– Sense of taste and smell
– Peristalsis and motility
– Gastric atrophy
– Gastric secretions
– Pancreatic enzymes
– Liver size and function

Nutrition