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Flashcards in Mobility part 2 Deck (75)
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1

The most prevalent bone disease in the world?

osteoporosis

2

means porous bone, is a disease in which the density and quality of bone are reduced.

osteoporosis

3

a disease of the bones that happens when you lose too much bone, make too little bone or both.

osteoporosis

4

low bone density, middle ground, not enough bone density lost to be diagnosed as osteoporosis

osteopenia

5

break down bone

ostoeclasts

6

rebuild bone

osteoblasts

7

What medication risk factors are there for osteoporosis?

*steroids
*anti-seizure
*antacids
*chemotherapy drugs

8

What disease risk factors are there for osteoporosis?

–Anorexia
–Malabsorption syndrome
–Chronic Kidney failure

9

– Measures bone mineral density (BMD)
– Recommended for ALL women >65yrs
– Post-Menopausal women >50yrs w/risk factors

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

10

10 year probability of getting a fracture based on assessment

Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX)

11

What are osteoporosis medication treatment?

• Calcium and Vitamin D supplements
• Raloxifene Hydrochloride (Evista)
• Calcitonin
• Bisphosphonates
• Teriparatide (Forteo)
• Denosumab (Prolia)

12

– Inhibits bone breakdown (osteoclast activity)
– Available as a daily, weekly, monthly or yearly
dose
– Potential side effects: GI symptoms –dyspepsia,
nausea, flatulence, diarrhea and constipation
• Take on an empty stomach
• Take with a full glass of water
• Stay upright for 30-60 minutes after ingestion
– Do NOT take at the same time as Calcium

Bisphosphonates

13

–Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator
(SERM) – mimics natural estrogen without
increasing cancer effects from estrogen
–Inhibits bone breakdown (osteoclast
activity)
–Side Effects: Increase risk of blood clots, hot
flashes

• Raloxifene Hydrochloride (Evista)

14

–Inhibits bone breakdown (osteoclast activity) and
stimulates bone formation (osteoblasts)
–Available as an injection or nasal spray
–No major side effects
*good option

Calcitonin

15

– Synthetic Parathyroid Hormone – stimulates
formation of bone (osteoblast activity)
– For use with:
• Men and postmenopausal women with
osteoporosis at high risk for fractures
• Men and women with chronic steroid use
• Those unable to take other osteoporosis
medications
– Can’t take for more than 2 years in a lifetime
– Side effect: orthostatic hypotension, joint and
muscle pain and weakness, nausea
– Daily Subcutaneous Injection

Teriparatide (Forteo)

16

– Inhibits bone breakdown (osteoclasts)
– For osteoporosis with a high risk of fractures
OR can’t use other osteoporosis medications
OR other medications were not effective
– Contraindicated with low blood calcium
levels
– Side effects: jaw bone necrosis, thigh
fractures, serious infections

Denosumab (Prolia)

17

Which types of treatment medications are there available for osteoporosis?

*Denosumab (Prolia)
*Teriparatide (Forteo)

18

What are fractures?

• Break in the continuity of a bone
• Can happen to any bone in the body

19

– Break is across entire width of the bone

complete fracture

20

– Break is through only part of the bone, and the other side is bent

incomplete fracture (greenstick)

21

– Produces bone fragments

Comminuted Fracture

22

– No break in the skin

Closed Fracture aka Simple Fracture

23

– Bone breaks through the skin or mucus
membranes

Open Fracture aka Compound Fracture

24

How are gustilo open (compound) fractures classified?

*Grade I
*Grade II
*Grade III

25

– Least severe
– Wound < 1 cm
– Wound is clean

Grade I

26

– Wound >1 cm and < 10 cm
– Without extensive soft tissue damage

Grade II

27

– Most severe injury and mostly > 10cm
– Extensive soft tissue damage
– Highly Contaminated Wound
– May also have nerve or vascular damage or
associated with a traumatic amputation

Grade III

28

a fracture that remains contained, with no disruption of the skin integrity

simple fracture

29

a fracture in which damage also involves the skin or mucous membranes, also called a compound fracture

open fracture

30

a fracture occurring at an angle across the bone (less stable than a transverse fracture)

oblique fracture