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1

The intake and use of nutrients by the body.

nutrition

2

Basic Human Need
Nutrients are needed for:

 Energy
 Growth
 Maintenance

3

the #1 cause of death

heart disease

4

what does a clear liquid diet consist of?

see-through items liquid at room temperature
*clear juices- apple, grape, cranberry
*clear drinks- fruit punch, soda (ginger ale, lemon-lime), *plain tea, black coffee
*broth, bouillon
*gelatin
*popsicles, ices
*hard candy

5

what consist of a full liquid diet?

food liquid or pourable at room temperature
*juice
*dairy or dairy alternative- beverages, ice cream, yogurt, custard, pudding
*hot cereal
*all clear liquid items

6

diet low in sodium, low in cholesterol, low in fat

cardiovascular disease and hypertension

7

most restrictive diet--> low in protein, fluid, sodium, potassium and phosphorus

renal disease

8

Risk for aspiration due to dysphagia

Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) (stroke)

9

Need protein, micronutrients for?

wound healing

10

Why enteral feeding?

1. Unable to eat or drink (Total Nutrition)
2. Inadequate intake to meet nutritional needs
(Supplemental Nutrition)
• High Metabolic Demands
- Burns, Trauma
• Failure to Thrive
• Fatigue

11

Other purposes for enteral tube includes?

• Gastric Lavage – bleeding, poisoning, overdose
• Specimen Collection
• Decompression
• Vomiting

12

Methods of delivery for enteral feeding includes?

1. Bolus
2. Intermittent
3. Continuous

13

Administered by gravity usually into the
stomach via a large syringe.
 Advantage: can be given quickly (10-15 minutes)
 Disadvantages: quick feeding not always tolerated by patient

Bolus

14

Administered with or without a
feeding pump
 Advantage: Common method for home usage
 Disadvantage: Need patient teaching on pump usage

Intermittent enteral feeding

15

Feeding infused continuously
over a 24 hour period
 Advantages: Easily tolerated

Continuous enteral feeding

16

Complications of enteral therapy includes?

*gastrointestinal
*mechanical
*metabolic

17

*diarrhea
*nausea or vomiting
*gas/bloating/cramping
*constipation

gastrointestinal

18

*Hyperosmolar Formula
*Too rapid infusion or too large bolus
*Formula too cold

diarrhea

19

*Too high residuals
*Not tolerating formula
leads to?

nausea or vomiting

20

*Air in tube
*High Fiber formula
leads to?

gas/bloating/cramping

21

*Low Fiber formula
*Dehydration
leads to?

constipation

22

*aspiration pneumonia
*tube displacement
*tube obstruction
*nasopharyngeal irritation

mechanical complication of enteral therapy

23

Improper tube placement, HOB is not kept at ≥ 30 degrees, causes?

aspiration pneumonia

24

unsecured tube, excessive coughing or vomiting, caused from?

tube displacement

25

Inadequate flushing, crushing, leads to?

tube obstruction

26

most common complication on enteral feeding and mechanical enteral feeding

tube obstruction

27

Tube position, improper taping, use of large bore tube can cause?

nasopharyngeal irritation

28

*hyperglycemia
*dehydration

metabolic complication of enteral therapy

29

High carbohydrate content of formula can cause?

hyperglycemia

30

*Hyperosmolar formulas
*Insufficient fluid intake can cause?

dehydration