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Flashcards in Nutrition part 2 Deck (133)
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1

What are the GI functions?

*ingestion
*digestion
*absorption
*elimination

2

intake of nutrients

ingestion

3

breakdown of food particles

digestion

4

nutrients moving from GI tract to blood stream

absorption

5

getting rid of fecal contents

elimination

6

What are the 6 classes of nutrients?

*carbohydrates
*proteins
*fats
*vitamins
*minerals
*water

7

What sources are macronutrients?

*carbohydrates
*proteins
*fats

8

What sources are micronutrients?

*vitamins
*minerals
*water

9

Primary energy source

carbohydrates

10

Dietary recommendations: 45%-65%
of total daily calories

carbohydrates

11

fruit sugar

fructose

12

table sugar

sucrose

13

milk sugar

lactose

14

malt sugar

maltose

15

storage form of energy in plants

starches

16

cannot be broken down by digestive enzymes (undigestible), roughage

fiber

17

• Decreases risk of heart disease by binding to
cholesterol (eliminated in feces)
• Decreases risk of constipation by increasing
fecal mass and retention of water (bulk)

fiber

18

contain calories

nutritive sweeteners

19

contain no calories or an insignificant amount of calories

nonnutritive sweetener

20

Why do you have to be careful about giving people the nonnutritive sweetener aspartame?

these sweeteners contains phenylalanine, an amino acid that some people may not be able to break down

21

-found in nature
-used as a natural sweetener
-poorly absorbed
-may cause gas and diarrhea

sugar alcohols (polyols)

22

the building blocks of the human
body and contain amino acids

proteins

23

Dietary recommendations: 10%-35% of total
daily calories

proteins

24

The type of protein and its function is dependent on?

--Number of amino acids
– Sequencing of amino acids
– Shape of the chain formed (straight, folded,
coiled)

25

Obtain through our diet, our bodies do not make it

essential amino acids

26

may want to intake these amino acids

conditionally non-essential amino acids

27

our bodies make these amino acids

non-essential amino acids

28

What are the main functions of proteins?

• Growth and Maintenance (Anabolism)
– Muscle, Bone, Collagen, Hair, Nails, Skin
• Hormones and Enzymes
– Hormones (insulin, thyroxin)
– Enzymes (amylase, lipase)
• Immune System Response
– Antibodies
• Transportation of Nutrients & Oxygen
– Assists nutrients in and out of cells
– Hemoglobin, Myoglobin
• Energy (Catabolism)(Gluconeogenesis)
– can break down protein if no other source available
• Blood Clotting
• Fibrinogen

29

types and amounts of amino acids in a protein and its ability to be digested

protein quality

30

What are complete proteins?

– Contain all 9 essential amino acids
– All animal sources: Meat, poultry, eggs, fish, dairy,
seafood
– One plant source: soy