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Flashcards in Endocrine system Deck (96)
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1

Neurons cannot store glucose so what do we have to do?

keep a good balance of glucose/ ATP in the blood

2

What are hormones?

chemical messengers that act on specific target tissues; affect metabolism of target cels/ tissue

3

What are the general functions of hormones?

they regulate;
- ECF
- Metabolism
- biological clock
- cardiac/smooth muscle contraction
- glandular secretinos
- reproduction
- some immune functions

4

Hormones affect only those cells with _______membrane proteins (receptors; for hormones)

specific

5

What happens to hormones receptors when hormones increase?

down-regulation (decrease receptors)

6

What happens to hormone receptors when hormones are too low?

up- regulation (increases receptors)

7

What are the 2 types of local hormones?

paracrine (act on neighbouring cells)
autocrine (act on the cell secreting them)

8

What is an autocrine local hormone?

acts on the cell secreting it

9

What is a paracrine local hormone?

acts on neighbouring cells

10

What are circulating hormones?

hormones that act on distant targets and travel to them by through the blood

11

What are the 2 types of chemical hormones?

lipid soluble
water soluble

12

What are the 3 types of lipid-soluble hormones?

steroids
thyroid hormones
nitric oxide

13

What are steroid hormones?

- cholesterol based
- secrete from adrenal cortex (as cortisol, aldosterone), from testes (as testosterone), from ovaries and placenta (as estrogen and progesterone)

14

What does aldosterone from the adrenal cortex do?

helps regulate blood volume/pressure by reabsorbing sodium

15

What does the adrenal cortex secrete?

cortisol
aldosterone

16

What do the testes secrete?

testosterone

17

What do the ovaries and placenta secrete?

estrogen and progesterone

18

What are thyroid hormones?

- a lipid soluble hormone that is derived from tyrosine and secreted from the thyroid gland as triiodothyrine (T3), and thyroxine (T4)

19

What are the 2 types of thyroid hormones?

triodothyronine (T3)
thyroxine (T4)

20

What is the lipid soluble hormone nitric oxide?

- a gas
- released by endothelial cells lining the blood vessels
- vasodilator

21

What are the 3 categories of water-soluble hormones?

- amines
- peptides and protein hormones
- eicosanoids

22

What are amine hormones?

- derived from amino acids
-secreted from adrenal medulla (catecholamines- E, NE) and from mast cells (histamines)

23

What are peptide hormones?

hormones secreted from pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreas

24

What hormones are secreted from the pituitary?

ACTH, GH, TSH, ADH, oxytocin

25

What hormone is secreted from the parathyroid?

PTH

26

What hormones are secreted from the pancreas?

insulin & glucagon

27

What are Eicosanoids?

- derived from arachidonic acid
- secreted from all cells except red blood cells
- important local hormone
- includes prostaglandins, leukotrienes

28

What are peptides?

typically short proteins

29

How do protein hormones circulate in the blood?

in free form

30

How do lipid soluble hormones circulate through the blood?

binds to transport protein to improve transport, makes them water soluble, allows them to be excreted through the urine, creates reserve of hormones in the blood stream