Flashcards in Acids and bases Deck (27)
Normal blood pH is
IONIZE in water releasing their H ion
- proton donors
Compound that BIND H ions (usually in water)
What makes an acid or base strong?
Spends most of its time in its dissociated form
What makes an acid or base weak?
They stay in their associated form
In what ways does our body generate acids?
cellular metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats
What does volitile mean
Easily turns into a gas
What are the three mechanisms to regulate the pH
1. buffers (immediate)
2. exhalation (lungs)
2. excretion (kidneys)
Substances that control H ion concentration by bonding them; prevent rapid change
What are the there major buffer systems
3. carbonic acid-bicarbonate (most important)
Which buffer system is the most important, why?
The carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system because it is regulated by the lungs and kidneys as well.
What 3 ways does the respiratory system move CO2 through the blood to the lungs?
-7% CO2 dissolved into the blood converting to carbonic acid
- 23% CO2 binds to the hemoglobin in the red blood cells
- 70% CO2 H ions bind to hemoglobin and the are released near the lungs so it can re-associate to make carbonic acid which is volatile thus enabling us to breath out hydrogen ions
How does the respiratory system control blood pH?
The less you breath the the more CO2 you keep
The more you breath the more CO2 you eliminate
How do the kidneys regulate pH?
Eliminates H ions in the urine, and by synthesizing more bicarbonate.
What does alkalosis cause?
Excitation of the nervous system: spasms, tetanus convulsions, death
What does acidosis cause
Depression of the nervous system; coma, death
Respiratory acidosis cause
Anythings that cause CO2 to not be eliminated
Respiratory alkalosis cause
Hyperventilation, mechanical ventilation
Treatment of respiratory acidosis
IV bicarbonate therapy, and ventilation therapy
Treatment of respiratory alkalosis
breathe into a paper bag
Metabolic acidosis causes
drop in bicarbonate or an increase of metabolic acids (example; if you drink too much wine)
Treatment of metabolic acidosis
IV with sodium bicarbonate
Metabolic alkalosis causes
Increased bicarbonate (constipation or too much alkali ingestion) or decreased acid level (loosing fluids, dehydration)
Treatment of metabolic alkalosis
Is there an acid base imbalance and if so what is the compensation and what is the condition?
PH 7.54 (normal range 7.35-7.45)
CO2 26 (normal range 35-45)
HCO3 16 (normal range 22-26)
ph and co2 indicates alkalosis
hco3 indicates acidosis
Condition- compensating respiratory alkalosis
high breathing rate