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Flashcards in Acids and bases Deck (27)
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1

Normal blood pH is

7.35-7.45

2

Acid

IONIZE in water releasing their H ion
- proton donors

3

Bases

Compound that BIND H ions (usually in water)
-Proton accepters

4

What makes an acid or base strong?

Spends most of its time in its dissociated form

5

What makes an acid or base weak?

They stay in their associated form

6

In what ways does our body generate acids?

cellular metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats

7

What does volitile mean

Easily turns into a gas

8

What are the three mechanisms to regulate the pH

1. buffers (immediate)
2. exhalation (lungs)
2. excretion (kidneys)

9

Buffers

Substances that control H ion concentration by bonding them; prevent rapid change

10

What are the there major buffer systems

1. protein
2. phosphate
3. carbonic acid-bicarbonate (most important)

11

Which buffer system is the most important, why?

The carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system because it is regulated by the lungs and kidneys as well.

12

What 3 ways does the respiratory system move CO2 through the blood to the lungs?

-7% CO2 dissolved into the blood converting to carbonic acid
- 23% CO2 binds to the hemoglobin in the red blood cells
- 70% CO2 H ions bind to hemoglobin and the are released near the lungs so it can re-associate to make carbonic acid which is volatile thus enabling us to breath out hydrogen ions

13

How does the respiratory system control blood pH?

The less you breath the the more CO2 you keep
The more you breath the more CO2 you eliminate

14

How do the kidneys regulate pH?

Eliminates H ions in the urine, and by synthesizing more bicarbonate.

15

What does alkalosis cause?

Excitation of the nervous system: spasms, tetanus convulsions, death

16

What does acidosis cause

Depression of the nervous system; coma, death

17

Respiratory acidosis cause

Anythings that cause CO2 to not be eliminated

18

Respiratory alkalosis cause

Hyperventilation, mechanical ventilation

19

Treatment of respiratory acidosis

IV bicarbonate therapy, and ventilation therapy

20

Treatment of respiratory alkalosis

breathe into a paper bag

21

Metabolic acidosis causes

drop in bicarbonate or an increase of metabolic acids (example; if you drink too much wine)

22

Treatment of metabolic acidosis

IV with sodium bicarbonate

23

Metabolic alkalosis causes

Increased bicarbonate (constipation or too much alkali ingestion) or decreased acid level (loosing fluids, dehydration)

24

Treatment of metabolic alkalosis

electrolyte therapy

25

Is there an acid base imbalance and if so what is the compensation and what is the condition?
PH 7.54 (normal range 7.35-7.45)
CO2 26 (normal range 35-45)
HCO3 16 (normal range 22-26)

ph and co2 indicates alkalosis
hco3 indicates acidosis

Condition- compensating respiratory alkalosis

26

Define hyperpnea.

high breathing rate

27

Define hypopnea.

low breathing rate