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Flashcards in The Brain and Cranial Nerves Deck (88)
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1

What does the brain deal with?

sensation, memory, decision making, and movement

2

How does the brain communicate?

brain communicates via the spinal cord and 12 pairs of cranial nerves

3

What are the 4 ventricles?

lateral ventricles (2)
third ventricle
fourth ventricle

4

Blood supply branches from where through the brain?

the circle of willis

5

How much oxygen and glucose from the blood does the brain consume ?

20%

6

When there is neural activity does the blood flow increase or decrease?

increase

7

What are the (3) protective coverings of the brain?

bone
meninges
cerebral spinal fluid

8

What are the (3) meninges?

dura mater (most superficial)
arachnoid mater
pia mater

9

What does the dural sinus do?

carries venous blood from the brain

10

What are dural partitions?

extend into fissure, support the brain

11

Name the 3 dural partitions.

falx cerebri
tentorium ceribelli
falx cerebelli

12

Where is the flax cerebri?

within longitudinal fissure

13

Where is the tentorium cerebelli?

btw the cerebellum and cerebrum

14

What does the blood brain barrier consist of?

- brain capillary endothelial cells (simple squomous) joined by tight junctions
- continuous basement membrane
- processes of astrocytes (wraps around capilleries)

15

What is the purpose of the blood brain barrier?

prevents passage of many toxins and pathogens (proteins & antibiotics can't cross; glucose, alcohol and anesthetic can cross)

16

What is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?

clear, colourless liquid transcellular fluid (specialized interstitual fluid)
- protect the brain and spinal cord, transports nutrients and metabolic waste, & provides stable chemical environment

17

How many ml of CSF is there and where is it found?

- 80-150 ml
- fills ventricles & surrounds CNS

18

Where is CSF produced?

Choroid plexuses in walls of ventricles

19

Where does the CSF flow?

lateral ventricles > interventricular foramen > third ventricle > cerebral aquaduct > 4th ventricle > median and lateral apertures > either subdural space or central canal of spinal cord

20

Once the CSF reaches the subdural space how does it return to the blood?

through the arachnoid that protrudes through dural sinuses

21

From the dural sinus where does the CSF go?

CSF drains to dural sinuses then to jugular veins

22

What does the medulla oblongata contain?

- ascending and descending tracts
- pathways to/from cerebellum
- nuclei of 5 cervical nerves

23

What does the medulla oblongata do?

-controls vital functions
- controls rate and force of heart rate
- vasomotor centre (blood pressure)
- Respiratory center (rate/ depth of breathing
-controls centres for coughing, sneezing, hiccuping, swallowing, vomiting, sweating

24

What cranial nerves arise from pons?

5-7

25

What is the function of the pons?

centre that controls pattern of breathing

26

What cranial nerves arise from the midbrain?

3 & 4

27

What is the function of the midbrain

- co-ordination of muscle movement
- visual and auditory reflex centres

28

What does the reticular formation do?

- helps regulate muscle tone
- reticular activating system (RAS)
- regulates level of consciousness
- alerts cerebrum to sensory signals
- pain signals cause an increase of arousal through out the brain

29

How many hemispheres does the cerebellum have?

2

30

What does the cerebellum do?

controls automatic processes
- compares motor commands with input from proprioceptors
- maintains posture, muscle tone, balance
- coordinates, smooths complex sequence of skilled muscle movement