Flashcards in Endocrine Complaints 2 Deck (46)
Describe the thyroid gland axis
Hypothalamus - TRH
Pituitary - TSH
Thyroid gland - T4 and T3
What is the major thyroid hormone that is secreted by the thyroid gland?
What is the active thyroid hormone?
What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the world?
What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US?
Hashimoto's thyroiditis (autoimmune disease)
What is a goiter?
Enlarged thyroid gland
Key signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism
Why will TSH be elevated in patients with hypothyroidism?
Due to low levels of T3 and T4 there is no negative feedback so the anterior pituitary continues to release TSH
General treatment for hypothyroidism?
Replace hormone - Hormone deficiency
What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the US?
Grave's Disease (autoimmune disease)
Key signs and symptoms of Grave's disease (hyperthyroidism)
Protruding eye balls
Palpitations, sweating, warm skin
Why will TSH be suppressed in patients with hyperthyroidism?
Due to high levels of T3 and T4 there will be negative feedback on the anterior pituitary to make less TSH
General treatment for hyperthyroidism?
Remove hormone - Hormone excess
What is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system?
Disordered growth of thyroid cells
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates?
Parathyroid hormone does what to calcium levels?
How is the parathyroid hormone regulated?
Via calcium levels in the blood:
- low calcium increases PTH
- high calcium decreases PTH
What is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism?
Most common symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism?
What is the classic presentation of high calcium levels?
Stones, bones and groans
- kidney stones
- abnormal bones (weakness)
What cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is usually symptomatic at discovery?
Hypercalcemia of malignancy
What is the main cause of hypoparathyroidism?
Inadvertent damage or removal of parathyroid glands during surgery
What are the key signs and symptoms of hypoparathyroidism?
Tapping the facial nerve just anterior to the ear elicits twitching/spasm of all facial muscles
Induction of a carpal spasm by inflation of BP cuff
Low PTH levels and Low calcium levels means?
The adrenal glands primary products?
Mineralcorticoids and Glucocorticoids