Endocrine Complaints 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine Complaints 2 Deck (46)
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1

Describe the thyroid gland axis

Hypothalamus - TRH
Pituitary - TSH
Thyroid gland - T4 and T3

2

What is the major thyroid hormone that is secreted by the thyroid gland?

T4

3

What is the active thyroid hormone?

T3

4

T3/T4 deficiency

Hypothyroidism

5

What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the world?

Iodine deficiency

6

What is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the US?

Hashimoto's thyroiditis (autoimmune disease)

7

What is a goiter?

Enlarged thyroid gland

8

Key signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism

SLOWER metabolism
Weight gain
Fatigue
Dry skin
Feeling cold
Constipation

9

Why will TSH be elevated in patients with hypothyroidism?

Due to low levels of T3 and T4 there is no negative feedback so the anterior pituitary continues to release TSH

10

General treatment for hypothyroidism?

Replace hormone - Hormone deficiency

11

What is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in the US?

Grave's Disease (autoimmune disease)

12

Key signs and symptoms of Grave's disease (hyperthyroidism)

FASTER metabolism
Weight loss
Protruding eye balls
Palpitations, sweating, warm skin

13

Why will TSH be suppressed in patients with hyperthyroidism?

Due to high levels of T3 and T4 there will be negative feedback on the anterior pituitary to make less TSH

14

General treatment for hyperthyroidism?

Remove hormone - Hormone excess

15

What is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system?

Thyroid cancer

16

Disordered growth of thyroid cells

Nodular disease

17

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates?

Calcium levels

18

Parathyroid hormone does what to calcium levels?

Increases them

19

How is the parathyroid hormone regulated?

Via calcium levels in the blood:
- low calcium increases PTH
- high calcium decreases PTH

20

What is the most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism?

Adenomas

21

Most common symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism?

MOSTLY ASYMPTOMATIC

22

What is the classic presentation of high calcium levels?

Stones, bones and groans
- kidney stones
- abnormal bones (weakness)
- constipation

23

What cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is usually symptomatic at discovery?

Hypercalcemia of malignancy

24

What is the main cause of hypoparathyroidism?

Inadvertent damage or removal of parathyroid glands during surgery

25

What are the key signs and symptoms of hypoparathyroidism?

Chvostek's sign
Trousseau sign
Irregular heartbeat

26

Chvostek's sign

Tapping the facial nerve just anterior to the ear elicits twitching/spasm of all facial muscles

27

Trousseau's sign

Induction of a carpal spasm by inflation of BP cuff

28

Low PTH levels and Low calcium levels means?

Hypoparathyroidism

29

The adrenal glands primary products?

Mineralcorticoids and Glucocorticoids

30

Main glucocorticoid?

Cortisol