Endocrine Complaints 1 Flashcards Preview

ECOS 2 Pre-Midterm > Endocrine Complaints 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine Complaints 1 Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

The study of glands and the hormones they produce

Endocrinology

2

What are some classic endocrine glands?

Pituitary
Pancreas
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Suprarenal

3

What are the 3 basic mechanisms of pathology for endocrine disorders?

1. Hormone excess
2. Hormone deficient
3. Hormone resistance

4

How do you measure obesity?

BMI - weight/height^2

5

Obese BMI

Greater than or equal to 30

6

Overweight BMI

Between 25-30

7

Fat cells adapted to store excess energy efficienly

Obesity

8

____ resistance probably plays a role in obesity

Leptin

9

What is metabolic syndrome?

Multiple metabolic abnormalities that increase risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes

10

Other names for metabolic syndrome?

Syndrome X
Insulin resistance syndrome

11

Any 3 of the following can diagnose metabolic syndrome

1. Central obesity (greater than 35/40 for women/men waist circumference)
2. Abnormal lipids
3. BP greater than 130/85
4. Fasting glucose is greater than 100

12

Best treatment for metabolic syndrome?

Lifestyle changes - lose weight, exercise, new diet

13

Insulin resistance leading to ineffective transport of glucose into cells

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

14

Hyperglycemia can lead to _____ damage

organ

15

Describe the evolution of Type 2 Diabetes

- Hyperinsulinemia to keep glucose levels normal
- Glucose levels start to rise - hyperglycemia
- Insulin production begins to decrease and beta cells die from overproduction
- Chronic hyperglycemia

16

What is Hemoglobin A1C?

Blood test to measure average blood sugar levels over the past 3 months

17

Main symptoms that are consequential of elevated glucose for Type 2 Diabetes

Polyuria - excessive peeing
Polydipsia - excessive thirst
Polyphagia - excessive eating
Weight loss/gain, increased hunger
Blurry vision
Acanthosis nigricans - skin rash
Impaired healing
Tingling in extremities

18

What are the criteria to diagnose Type 2 diabetes

- HbA1C greater than 6.5%
- Fasting glucose greater than 126
- 2 hour glucose and random glucose greater than 200

19

What body part is important to examine with patients who have diabetes?

Foot exam

20

Treatment for Type 2 diabetes

1. Overcome insulin resistance and resensitize organs
2. Decrease high hormone levels
** lifestyle management**

21

Immune-mediated beta cell destruction in the pancreas

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

22

_____ is one of the most common childhood disease

Type 1 DM

23

Main symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes

Polyuria
Polydipsia
Blurred vision
WEIGHT LOSS
Diabetic ketoacidosis
ABSENT insulin/C peptide

24

Age of onset for Type 1 and 2 DM

Type 1 = Childhood
Type 2 = after puperty

25

Insulin secretion levels for Type 1 and 2 DM

Type 1 = ABSENT
Type 2 = variable

26

Insulin sensitivity for Type 1 and 2 DM

Type 1 = Normal when controlled
Type 2 = DECREASED

27

Pancreatic antibodies yes or no for Type 1 and 2 DM

Type 1 = YES
Type 2 = no

28

Insulin dependence time for Type 1 and 2 DM

Type 1 = permanent
Type 2 = variable

29

If a patient has Type 1 DM, what other diseases like to run in packs and may be affecting this patient?

Autoimmune diseases

30

Treatment for Type 1 DM

Replace hormone - insulin