Flashcards in Endocrine Complaints 1 Deck (38)
The study of glands and the hormones they produce
What are some classic endocrine glands?
What are the 3 basic mechanisms of pathology for endocrine disorders?
1. Hormone excess
2. Hormone deficient
3. Hormone resistance
How do you measure obesity?
BMI - weight/height^2
Greater than or equal to 30
Fat cells adapted to store excess energy efficienly
____ resistance probably plays a role in obesity
What is metabolic syndrome?
Multiple metabolic abnormalities that increase risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes
Other names for metabolic syndrome?
Insulin resistance syndrome
Any 3 of the following can diagnose metabolic syndrome
1. Central obesity (greater than 35/40 for women/men waist circumference)
2. Abnormal lipids
3. BP greater than 130/85
4. Fasting glucose is greater than 100
Best treatment for metabolic syndrome?
Lifestyle changes - lose weight, exercise, new diet
Insulin resistance leading to ineffective transport of glucose into cells
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Hyperglycemia can lead to _____ damage
Describe the evolution of Type 2 Diabetes
- Hyperinsulinemia to keep glucose levels normal
- Glucose levels start to rise - hyperglycemia
- Insulin production begins to decrease and beta cells die from overproduction
- Chronic hyperglycemia
What is Hemoglobin A1C?
Blood test to measure average blood sugar levels over the past 3 months
Main symptoms that are consequential of elevated glucose for Type 2 Diabetes
Polyuria - excessive peeing
Polydipsia - excessive thirst
Polyphagia - excessive eating
Weight loss/gain, increased hunger
Acanthosis nigricans - skin rash
Tingling in extremities
What are the criteria to diagnose Type 2 diabetes
- HbA1C greater than 6.5%
- Fasting glucose greater than 126
- 2 hour glucose and random glucose greater than 200
What body part is important to examine with patients who have diabetes?
Treatment for Type 2 diabetes
1. Overcome insulin resistance and resensitize organs
2. Decrease high hormone levels
** lifestyle management**
Immune-mediated beta cell destruction in the pancreas
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
_____ is one of the most common childhood disease
Type 1 DM
Main symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes
ABSENT insulin/C peptide
Age of onset for Type 1 and 2 DM
Type 1 = Childhood
Type 2 = after puperty
Insulin secretion levels for Type 1 and 2 DM
Type 1 = ABSENT
Type 2 = variable
Insulin sensitivity for Type 1 and 2 DM
Type 1 = Normal when controlled
Type 2 = DECREASED
Pancreatic antibodies yes or no for Type 1 and 2 DM
Type 1 = YES
Type 2 = no
Insulin dependence time for Type 1 and 2 DM
Type 1 = permanent
Type 2 = variable
If a patient has Type 1 DM, what other diseases like to run in packs and may be affecting this patient?