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It is Durkheim's contention that traditional pre-modern societies are characterised by ____ ____. The social structure of these societies can be aptly described as made up of small-scale, rural, agricultural units.

mechanical solidarity


It follows that solidarity between individuals is brought about through ____ ____. The fact that the different occupations are so similar, implies that concordance between individuals arises almost automatically; solidarity is mechanical.

social likeness


For Durkheim, the collective conscience in a society distinguished by mechanical solidarity is noted for its _____. The thoughts of individuals are almost interchangeable since they all share common beliefs, values, norms and sentiments.



In fact, the ____ ____ (what may aptly be called the group mind) is so pervasive that there is little room for individuality.

collective conscience


____ ____ involve punishing the offender for violating a traditional societys moral codes. Punishment (eg- loss of an offenders life) represents an act of vengeance on the part of an outraged community whose moral codes have been transgressed.

Repressive sanctions


lt is worth noting that repressive sanctions in traditional, pre-modern European society up to the end of the eighteenth century often took the form of _____ ____. The torture and murder of those accused of violating the law was a public spectacle witnessed by many people.

public executions


It is the view of Durkheim that the division of labour in modern, large-scale, urban industrial societies is complex. Differences between occupations became clearly defined with the onset of _____.



Solidarity in a society distinguished by a complex division of labour is grounded in ____ between individuals.



Each individual performs a highly specialised task in the modern division of labour (eg. the division of labour in a government bureaucracy or business corporation) leading to increased ____ amongst individuals. The necessity for mutual co-operation is built into the highly complex division of labour in modern society.



This is tantamount to saying that social solidarity is what Durkheim aptly calls ____ ____.

organic solidarity


The basis for solidarity in modern society is ____, since mutual interdependence is inherent in the highly specialised division of labour.



Although the highly complex division of labour is in a structural sense leading to greater integration in modern society, Durkheim asserts that a ____ of the collective conscience is simultaneously occurring.



A uniform set of beliefs, values, norms and sentiments is no longer necessarily shared by all the members of modern, industrial society. And the weakened ____ ____, by the same token, undergoes a process of secularisation (ie, the decline of religious beliefs and values).

collective conscience


Durkheim maintains that the highly complex division of labour in modern society empowers the individual to develop a sense of ____ ____ and uniqueness and pursue independent thinking.

personal identity


The primary objective of ____ ____ is not punishment but the restoration of the relations between indmduals or groups disrupted by the violation of the law.

restitutive sanctions


In view of the fact that social cohesion in modern society ____ upon co-operation between individuals performing highly specialised tasks, restitutive sanctions refect this structural reality.