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1

Whose average is better
I have come across a question in GMATPrep.

Two navel cadets - Steve and Robert- received the same the evaluation in only one of four areas. Each evaluation was on a scaore of 1 to 10

From which of the following statements can one determine whose average score was higher on the evaluation?

1. Robert graduated at the top of his class
2.Steve scored higher than Robert in two areas and neither cadet scorted below 5 in any area
3. Steve's lowest score was less than or equal to Robert's highest score
4. Robert Received a score of 10 in three areas and Steve did not score higher than 8 in any area.
5.Robert's highest score and Steve's lowest score were in the same area.

The explanation given is The answer is C. Since they score the same in only one area, Steves lowest socre was equal to Robert's highest score. Hence, in the other three areas Steve scored higher than Robert. Thus, Steves's average score is higher than Robert's.

I am unable to understand the explanation.
When they tell less then or equal to how can we assume that it is equal to.
If St's lowest score is less than Robert's highest score then assume St - 3, 4,5,6 and Robert 6,7,8,9. here St's lowest score 3 is less than Rober's highest score 9. Robert has higher average than Steve.


Good post? |
Ans is D. Probably the Official Answer got copied wrong before you got hold of it or something.

To put simply, you may have overlooked the stem. They have one eval in common. If Rob got three 10s and Steve got none higher than 8, then their fourth scores are each 8s or lower but the same in any case. So Robert clearly got higher marks using D. And may I say that navel cadets seem unseemlier than naval cadets...


Since I just got posting elsewhere tonight about the validity of Official Answer's, let me just say that this is a very rare occurence, or perhaps someone from gmatclub.com slipped in a bogus Official Answer again.
Last edited by check.stone; 02-09-2007 at 03:58 PM. Reason: Backtracking...slightly
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2


Good post? |
from GMATprep2
if x an integer is the median of the 5 numbers
X,3,1,12,8 GREATER THEN THE average of the 5 numbers?

1 x>6
2 x is greater then the median of the 5 numbers


Good post? |
imo E
1. X> 6
Median is some number present in the series which divides the series into two groups - so by giving x as 2000 will increase the average but median remains the same - not suff

2. X > median of 5 numbers
That means x is not median and hence median can be 3 or 8. Average of number is (x+24)/5 - not sufficient

Combining both average is > 6 - but we cannot say if this is grater or less than median

3

8. Teenagers are often priced out of the labor market by the government-mandated minimum-wage level because employers cannot afford to pay that much for extra help. Therefore, if Congress institutes a subminimum wage, a new lower legal wage for teenagers, the teenage unemployment rate, which has been rising since 1960, will no longer increase.
Which of the following, if true, would most weaken the argument above?
(A) Since 1960 the teenage unemployment rate has risen when the minimum wage has risen.
(B) Since 1960 the teenage unemployment rate has risen even when the minimum wage remained constant.
(C) Employers often hire extra help during holiday and warm weather seasons.
(D) The teenage unemployment rate rose more quickly in the 1970’s than it did in the 1960’s.
(E) The teenage unemployment rate has occasionally declined in the years since 1960.

Correct answer B.

Whats wrong with answer [/spoiler]A?

IMO B


Premise: there is an direct relationship between teenager wages and minimum wages.

The thing to understand is that teenager wages are not dependant on minimum wages or by lowering minimum wages.

A) but we are trying to lower the minim wage not increase it. This would not weeken the argument
B) correct answer because it shows that even if minimum wages are kept constant, the teenager wages have been increasing. This shows that the teenager wages are affected by other factors than minimum wages and is not dependent on minimum wages.
C) argument shows seasonality of the wages and does not talk about the relationship between teenager wages and minimim wages.
D) same as C
E) same as E[/u]

4

It takes 4 weeks for a team of 5 professional Window Washers working regular full time hours to completely clean every window of the Empire State building. The building's owner demands that all the windows always be clean.Yet even if the 5 washers work consistently throughout their regular work week,they will not be able to finish cleaning all the windows before some windows will need cleaning.

Which of the following statements as must be true on the basis of the statements above ?
A) If an empire state building window is to be kept clean, it must be cleaned by a professional cleaner.
B)The owner's demand for proper cleaning of all the windows will never be fulfilled.
C) If a team of 5 window washers cleans all the empire state building's windows in less than 4 weeks, some windows will not be properly cleaned.
D) In order to ensure that all of the Empire State Building's windows are clean, the owner must have his window washers work overtime.
E)Some Empire State Building windows must be cleaned more frequently than once every four weeks if they are to be kept clean.

OA:E..Why not C? Is 'some windows not be properly cleaned' in option C playing a spoilsport?

E)Some Empire State Building windows must be cleaned more frequently than once every four weeks if they are to be kept clean.

Now let us go through the options one by one and check:

A-- we do not know because it is not mentioned in the argument that only professional cleaners can clean the windows. Incorrect.
B-- out of context and incorrect.
C-- we are not concerned here about windows being "properly cleaned". That is not the moot point. We are concerned about cleaning of windows. C digresses from the topic even if it may be true.
D-- again, out of context and incorrect.
E-- is very much consistent with what has been written in the passage and so must be true.

An important takeaway from this problem is that we are concerned with finding the correct answer, not the one that sounds true or right.

5

Often patients with ankle fractures that are stable, and thus do not require surgery, are given follow-up x-rays because their orthopedists are concerned about possibly having misjudged the stability of the fracture. When a number of follow-up x-rays were reviewed, however, all the fractures that had initially been judged stable were found to have
healed correctly. Therefore, it is a waste of money to order follow-up x-rays of ankle fracture initially judged stable.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?
A. Doctors who are general practitioners rather than orthopedists are
less likely than orthopedists to judge the stability of an ankle fracture
correctly.
B. Many ankle injuries for which an initial x-ray is ordered are revealed
by the x-ray not to involve any fracture of the ankle.
C. X-rays of patients of many different orthopedists working in several
hospitals were reviewed.
D. The healing of ankle fractures that have been surgically repaired is
always checked by means of a follow-up x-ray.
E. Orthopedists routinely order follow-up x-rays for fractures of bone
other than ankle bones.

As @hardik has pointed out earlier the correct answer to this question is (C). This question is from Official Verbal review (Blue edition) and the OA is (C).

(B) is incorrect. The reason stated is "Naturally many ankle injuries do not involve fractures - x rays may sometimes be used to determine this - but the argument concerns only cases where there have been ankle fractures".

Here we don't know what is meant by "Many" and how many of the ankle injuries are ankle fractures. Moreover the apt reason for striking out this choice is - the argument only concerned with ankle fractures and not injuries".

(C) is correct. It strengthens the x-ray data that examined making it sufficiently representative of cases of ankle fracture judged to be stable by orthopedists. The answer choice adds the information that the data for the conclusion comes from many orthopedists working in many hospitals. So we have greater assurance that the x-ray data is representative, and hence the argument is made much stronger.


Thanks
Prashant

6

Fish currently costs about the same at seafood stores throughout Eastville and its surrounding suburbs. Seafood stores buy fish from the same wholesalers and at the same prices, and other business expenses have also been about the same. But new tax breaks will substantially lower the cost of doing business within the city. Therefore, in the future, profit margins will be higher at seafood stores within the city than at suburban seafood stores.

For the purposes of evaluating the argument, it would be most useful to know whether.

(A)more fish wholesalers are located within the city than in the surrounding suburbs.

(B) Any people who currently own seafood stores in the suburbs surrounding Eastville will relocate their businesses nearer to the city

(C) The wholesale price of fish is likely to fall in the future

(D)Fish has always cost about the same at seafood stores throughout Eastville and its surrounding suburbs.

(E) Seafood stores within the city will in the future set prices that are lower than those at suburban seafood stores.

Fish costs same uniformly in Eastville and surrounding suburbs.
Same wholesalers, same prices, same business expenses.
New tax breaks will lower cost of doing business WITHIN city.,

CONCLUSION : Therefore, in future, profit margins will be higher within city than in suburbs.

Which of the following would be useful information to know in order to evaluate above conclusion?


A. More or less, their profit margins can still be different just the same - not useful.

B. Nearer the city. So what? Is that within the city? And even if it is, do we know why they moved and how it is related to this issue of the profit margin? No.

C. If wholesale price of fish falls, rises or stays equal, it will still affect all these stores both inside and outside city, and will thus uniformly affect profit margin. This won't help us validate that profit margin within city is more or not.

D. If it has always cost the same, so what:? Does that explain the possibilities in the future?

E. Ahah. If the ones in the city set lower prices than the suburban ones, then the amount that they save with the tax breaks could be counterbalanced by reduced revenue and make profit margins within and outside city limits equal or even possibly more in the suburban ones. Useful info.

Pick E.

7

92. Which of the following, if true, provides evidence that most logically completes the argument below?
According to a widely held economic hypothesis, imposing strict environmental regulations reduces economic growth. This hypothesis is undermined by the fact that the states with the strictest environmental regulations also have the highest economic growth. This fact does not show that environmental regulations promote growth, however, since ______.

A. those states with the strictest environmental regulations invest the most in education and job training
B. Even those states that have only moderately strict environmental regulations have higher growth than those with the least-strict regulations
C. many states that are experiencing reduced economic growth are considering weakening their environmental regulations
D. after introducing stricter environmental regulations, many states experienced increased economic growth
E. even those states with very weak environmental regulations have experienced at least some growth

Answer A is correct because it states that economic growth is not connected to the level of environmental regulations. This answer provides an alternative explanation of this situation. Economic growth is directly related to the amount of funds invested in educations and job training. Therefore, economic growth is NOT the result of strict environmental regulations.

Answer E, on the other hand, states that countries with weak regulations also experience some growth. This answer is too broad. It does not give any evidence to support the stand that economic growth and environmental regulations are two independent factors.

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8

Does this CR needs technical knowledge, such as peat. flora and fauna? What is peat?

Opponents of peat harvesting in this country argue that it would alter the ecological balance of our peat-rich wetlands and that, as a direct consequence of this, much of the country’s water supply would be threatened with contamination. But this cannot be true, for in Ireland, where peat has been harvested for centuries, the water supply is not contaminated. We can safely proceed with the harvesting of peat.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

(A) Over hundreds of years, the ecological balance of all areas changes slowly but significantly, sometimes to the advantage of certain flora and fauna.
(B) The original ecology of the peat-harvesting areas of Ireland was virtually identical to that of the undisturbed wetlands of this country.
(C) The activities of the other industries in coming years are likely to have adverse effects on the water supply of this country.
(D) The peat resources of this country are far larger than those of some countries that successfully harvest peat.
(E) The peat-harvesting industry of Ireland has been able to supply most of that country’s fuel for generations.

No OA

IMO B

_________________
Sudhanshu
(have lot of things to learn from all of you)

I also think that the OA is B.

I don't think that you need technical or outside knowledge. The GMAT, however, does want you to FEEL confused

So you could substitute the word peat with anything. So you could say "Opponents of apple harvesting in this country..." It will all still work because the GMAT cannot require you to know outside things about peat. In some ways it can be a blessing to not know a lot about something in an argument because you may lean toward "trick" answer choices that seem to play to your knowledge.

Try reading and analyzing the passage again with the word apples and see if that helps.


Last edited by barcebal on Thu Aug 05, 2010 12:48 am; edited 1 time in total

9


OG-12 CR Q-91 Environmentalist
Wed May 02, 2012 11:31 pmThankQuoteEdit Tags
Elapsed Time: 00:00startlapstop
Environmentalist: The commissioner of the Fish and Game Authority would have the public believe that increases in the number of marine fish caught demonstrate that this resource is no longer endangered. This is a specious argument, as unsound as it would be to assert that the ever-increasing rate at which rain forests are being cut down demonstrates a lack of danger to that resource. The real cause of the increased fish-catch is a greater efficiency in using technologies that deplete resources.

The environmentalist’s statements, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?
(A) The use of technology is the reason for the increasing encroachment of people on nature.
(B) It is possible to determine how many fish are in the sea in some way other than by catching fish.
(C) The proportion of marine fish that are caught is as high as the proportion of rain forest trees that are cut
down each year.
(D) Modern technologies waste resources by catching inedible fish.
(E) Marine fish continue to be an endangered resource.

What I understand from the argument is:
The commissioner wants the public to believe that marine fish is not endangered anymore, whereas , it is the reverse case.
I think even A support's the conclusion well enough by saying that technology is the root cause for encroachment ?

Please help
Thanks
Flag

transfer9858 wrote:
Whats the official answer?

I would say E because the environmentalist is saying, " no, the fish are still not safe and your argument makes no sense because your just getting better and catching more fish. Also, if I were to get create a better technology to cut down trees, does that mean there are more trees and so trees aren't in danger anymore? " So at the end, fish are still endangered. Make sense?
Yes, the OA is E .

Thanks mate ! I get that

10

CR PROBLEM - Q1
Tue Aug 14, 2012 7:03 amThankQuoteEdit Tags
Elapsed Time: 00:00startlapstop
Policy Adviser: Freedom of speech is not only a basic human right, it is also the only rational policy for this government to adopt. When ideas are openly aired good idea flourish, silly proposals are easily recognized as such, and dangerous ideas can be responded to by forcing citizens to disseminate their thoughts in secret.
Which one of the following, if true, world most strengthen the argument?
(A) Most citizens would tolerate some limits on freedom of speech
(B) With or without a policy of freedom of speech, governments respond to dangerous ideas irrationally
(C) Freedom of religion and freedom of assembly are also basic human rights than governments must recognize
(D) Governments are less likely to be overthrown if they openly adopt a policy allowing freedom of speech
(E) Great ideas have flourished in societies that repress free speech as often as in those that permit it


OA-D

Policy Adviser: Freedom of speech is not only a basic human right, it is also the only rational policy for this government to adopt. When ideas are openly aired good idea flourish, silly proposals are easily recognized as such, and dangerous ideas can be responded to by forcing citizens to disseminate their thoughts in secret.
Which one of the following, if true, world most strengthen the argument?

Conclusion: Government should adopt Freedom of speech (FOS) policy.
Premise:
1. FOS is basic human right as well as only rational policy.

Answer should be something that tells obligation to have FOS policy. i.e. Govt will run effectively only in presence of this policy. Or it will not work in absence of FOS policy.

(A) Most citizens would tolerate some limits on freedom of speech -> It weakens saying, govt can do without FOS policy.
(B) With or without a policy of freedom of speech, governments respond to dangerous ideas irrationally. -> Somewhat towards conclusion, but it neighter strenghtens nor weakens. It only says Govt will act irrationally in absence of the policy.
(C) Freedom of religion and freedom of assembly are also basic human rights than governments must recognize. -> No tie with the conclusion.
(D) Governments are less likely to be overthrown if they openly adopt a policy allowing freedom of speech. -> It says Govt. will not be overthrown if FOS policy adopted. In other words, Govt. will be overthrown if FOS policy is not adopted. So, It is the answer.
(E) Great ideas have flourished in societies that repress free speech as often as in those that permit it. -> It repeats whatever said in argument and No tie with conclusion.

11

CR PROBLEM - Q2
Tue Aug 14, 2012 7:05 amThankQuoteEdit Tags
Elapsed Time: 00:00startlapstop
Naturalist: For decades we have known that the tuatara, a New Zealand reptile, has been approaching extinction on the South Island but since South Island tuatara were thought to be of the same species as North Island tuatara there was no need to protect them. New research indicates that the South Island tuatara are a distinct species, found only in that location. Because it is now known that, if the South Island tuatara are lost, an entire species will thereby be lost, human beings are now obliged to prevent their extinction, even if it means killing many of their unendangered natural predators.
Which one of the following principles most helps to justify the naturalists' argumentation?
(A) In order to maximize the number of living things on Earth. Steps should be taken to preserve all local populations of animals.
(B) When an animal is in danger of dying, there is an obligation to help save its life, if doing so would not interfere with the health or well-being of other animals or people.
(C) The threat of local extinction imposes no obligation to try to prevent that extinction, whereas the threat of global extinction does impose such an obligation.
(D) Human activities that either intentionally or unintentionally threaten the survival of an animal species ought to be curtailed.
(E) Species that are found in only one circumscribed geographical region ought to be given more care and attention than are other species because they are more vulnerable to extinction.


Confused between C and E. OA - C

confuse mind wrote:
Naturalist: For decades we have known that the tuatara, a New Zealand reptile, has been approaching extinction on the South Island but since South Island tuatara were thought to be of the same species as North Island tuatara there was no need to protect them. New research indicates that the South Island tuatara are a distinct species, found only in that location. Because it is now known that, if the South Island tuatara are lost, an entire species will thereby be lost, human beings are now obliged to prevent their extinction, even if it means killing many of their unendangered natural predators.
Which one of the following principles most helps to justify the naturalists' argumentation?
(A) In order to maximize the number of living things on Earth. Steps should be taken to preserve all local populations of animals.
(B) When an animal is in danger of dying, there is an obligation to help save its life, if doing so would not interfere with the health or well-being of other animals or people.
(C) The threat of local extinction imposes no obligation to try to prevent that extinction, whereas the threat of global extinction does impose such an obligation.
(D) Human activities that either intentionally or unintentionally threaten the survival of an animal species ought to be curtailed.
(E) Species that are found in only one circumscribed geographical region ought to be given more care and attention than are other species because they are more vulnerable to extinction.
The answer is C for the following reason: Before, when the people thought the North tuatara was the same as the South one, no one wanted to protect it. Now, they know they are different and want to protect it. They will even sacrifice other animals in order to protect the species. Statement C says "The threat of local extinction imposes no obligation to try to prevent that extinction, whereas the threat of global extinction does impose such an obligation." That means that they are not willing to protect a species when it is will only locally die out (when there are other places with the species, {the NORTH}), but when they might be extincted globally (north and south are different), they will act to protect it.

Statement E is irrelevant to the issue at hand. E states that Species only found in one area should be given more care then other species. The argument is not really dealing with this issue. Sure, the species is only in one region, but the point is that it is going to be extinct. If it lived in a large area or a small area is irrelevant.

Hope this helps.

12

Fresh potatoes generally cost about $2 for a 10-pound bag, whereas dehydrated instant potatoes cost, on average, about $3 per pound. It can be concluded that some consumers will pay 15 times as much for convenience, since sales of this convenience food continue to rise.
Which of the following, if true, indicates that there is a major flaw in the argument above?
(A) Fresh potatoes bought in convenient 2-pound bags are about $1 a bag, or 2 1/2 times more expensive than fresh potatoes bought in 10-pound bags.
(B) Since fresh potatoes are 80 percent water, one pound of dehydrated potatoes is the equivalent of 5 pounds of fresh potatoes.
(C) Peeled potatoes in cans are also more expensive than the less convenient fresh potatoes.
(D) Retail prices of dehydrated potatoes have declined by 20 percent since 1960 to the current level of about $3 a pound.
(E) As a consequence of labor and processing costs, all convenience foods cost more than the basic foods from which they are derived.

gmat009 wrote:
Fresh potatoes generally cost about $2 for a 10-pound bag, whereas dehydrated instant potatoes cost, on average, about $3 per pound. It can be concluded that some consumers will pay 15 times as much for convenience, since sales of this convenience food continue to rise.
Which of the following, if true, indicates that there is a major flaw in the argument above?
(A) Fresh potatoes bought in convenient 2-pound bags are about $1 a bag, or 2 1/2 times more expensive than fresh potatoes bought in 10-pound bags.
(B) Since fresh potatoes are 80 percent water, one pound of dehydrated potatoes is the equivalent of 5 pounds of fresh potatoes.
(C) Peeled potatoes in cans are also more expensive than the less convenient fresh potatoes.
(D) Retail prices of dehydrated potatoes have declined by 20 percent since 1960 to the current level of about $3 a pound.
(E) As a consequence of labor and processing costs, all convenience foods cost more than the basic foods from which they are derived.
According to PowerScore CR Bible, this question belongs to family 2. i.e. we need to find the flaw in the conclusion by considering each answer choice as 100% correct.

If we look at the choice (B), it states that

1 Pound of Dehydrated potatoes = 5 pound of fresh potatoes.

That means, 2 pound of dehydrated potatoes = 10 pound of fresh potatoes. It means consumer will pay actually paying 6$ for the equivalent of 10 pounds of fresh potatoes. So, rate is increased by 3 times instead of 15 times.

Hence choose (B)

Option (C) is out of scope, because it talks about Peeled potatoes, which is out of scope in this context.

Hope this helps...

13

There are about 75 brands of microwave popcorn on the market; altogether, they account for a little over half of the money from sales of microwave food products. It takes three minutes to pop corn in the microwave, compared to seven minutes to pop corn conventionally. Yet by weight, microwave popcorn typically costs over five times as much as conventional popcorn. Judging by the popularity of microwave popcorn, many people are willing to pay a high price for just a little additional convenience.
If the statements in the passage are true, which one of the following must also be true?
(A) No single brand of microwave popcorn accounts for a large share of microwave food product sales.
(B) There are more brands of microwave popcorn on the market than there are of any other microwave food product.
(C) By volume, more microwave popcorn is sold than is conventional popcorn.
(D) More money is spent on microwave food products that take three minutes or less to cook than on microwave food products that take longer to cook.
(E) Of the total number of microwave food products on the market, most are microwave popcorn products.

confuse mind wrote:
There are about 75 brands of microwave popcorn on the market; altogether, they account for a little over half of the money from sales of microwave food products. It takes three minutes to pop corn in the microwave, compared to seven minutes to pop corn conventionally. Yet by weight, microwave popcorn typically costs over five times as much as conventional popcorn. Judging by the popularity of microwave popcorn, many people are willing to pay a high price for just a little additional convenience.t know how many products there are.

14

Economist: During a recession, a company can cut personnel costs either by laying off some employees without reducing the wages of remaining employees or by reducing the wages of all employees without laying off anyone. Both damage morale, but layoffs damage it less, since the aggrieved have, after all, left. Thus, when companies must reduce personnel costs during recessions, they are likely to lay off employees.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the economist’s reasoning?

(A) Employee morale is usually the primary concern driving companies’ decisions about whether to lay off employees or to reduce their wages.
(B) In general, companies increase wages only when they are unable to find enough qualified employees.
(C) Some companies will be unable to make a profit during recessions no matter how much they reduce personnel costs.
(D) When companies cut personnel costs during recessions by reducing wages, some employees usually resign.
(E) Some companies that have laid off employees during recessions have had difficulty finding enough qualified employees once economic growth resumed.

OA after some Reply..

LSAT Set 56 CR


Economist: During a recession, a company can cut personnel costs either by laying off some employees without reducing the wages of remaining employees or by reducing the wages of all employees without laying off anyone.

[Argument: Both damage morale, but layoffs damage it less, since the aggrieved have, after all, left.
Result: Thus, when companies must reduce personnel costs during recessions, they are likely to lay off employees.

We need to find the link between the argument and the result.

Which one of the following, if true, most strengthens the economist’s reasoning?



(A) Employee morale is usually the primary concern driving companies’ decisions about whether to lay off employees or to reduce their wages.
Correct answer. Links the argument and result and strengthens the argument. If morale is the key concern and laying off has lesser impact on morale then laying off is the best option.

(B) In general, companies increase wages only when they are unable to find enough qualified employees.
Incorrect and out of context.

(C) Some companies will be unable to make a profit during recessions no matter how much they reduce personnel costs.
Incorrect and out of context.

(D) When companies cut personnel costs during recessions by reducing wages, some employees usually resign.
Incorrect. Provides further information on the impact of cutting wages but does not link the result and argument.

(E) Some companies that have laid off employees during recessions have had difficulty finding enough qualified employees once economic growth resumed.
Incorrect and out of context

OA after some Reply..

15

Vitcorp, a manufacturer, wishes to make its information booth at an industry convention more productive in terms of boosting sales. The both offers information introducing the company's new products and services. To achieve the desired result, Vitacorp's marketing department will attempt to attract more people to the booth. The marketing director's first measure was to instruct each salesperson to call his or her five best customers and personally invite them to visit the booth.


Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the prediction that the marketing director's first measure will contribute to meeting the goal of boosting sales?

(A) Vitacorp's salespeople routinely inform each important customer about new products and services as soon as the decision to launch them has been made.

(B) Many of Vitacorp's competitors have made plans for making their own information booths more productive in increasing sales.

(C) An infomation booth that is well attended tends to attract visitors who would not otherwise have attended the booth.

(D) Most of Vitacorp's best customers also have business dealings with Vitcorp's competitors.

(E) Vitacorp has fewer new products and services available this year than it had in previous years.


This is an OG question - Q82 in Verbal Review. I am not convinced with OG's answer. Its (C). I think (C) is too general in this context.

Conc: to attract more people to the booth and boost sales

(A) Vitacorp's salespeople routinely inform each important customer about new products and services as soon as the decision to launch them has been made. (informing doesnt mean more ppl will be at the booth)

(B) Many of Vitacorp's competitors have made plans for making their own information booths more productive in increasing sales. (we are more concerned abt Vitacorp n its sales. OOS)

(C) An infomation booth that is well attended tends to attract visitors who would not otherwise have attended the booth. (in line with the Director's strategy. More crowd, more ppl tend to visit. correct)

(D) Most of Vitacorp's best customers also have business dealings with Vitcorp's competitors. (not pertinent to discussion. OOS)

(E) Vitacorp has fewer new products and services available this year than it had in previous years. (again OOS)

Hence (C)

16

A recent study of people who had successfully lost weight and implemented regular exercise routines in their twenties found that, by the age of forty, most had gained back the weight, stopped exercising regularly, or both. Surprisingly, among the study's subjects who had hired personal trainers to help them lose weight and exercise in their twenties, an even higher percentage had regained the weight or stopped exercising than among subjects who had not hired such trainers. The researchers concluded not only that remaining on an effective weight management and exercise program is difficult, but also that personal trainers are largely ineffective in helping people to remain on an effective weight management and exercise program.

Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument in the passage above?

1) Subjects in the study who had hired personal trainers had, on average, more free time to exercise than did those who had not hired such trainers.
2) Some people hire personal trainers for sport-specific training or to rehabilitate injuries, rather than to lose weight or implement a regular exercise program.
3) The average person's metabolism slows significantly between the ages of thirty and forty, making it more difficult for people aged forty or older to avoid weight gain.
4) Many of the personal trainers hired by the people in the study were also dietitians who helped their clients design meal plans.
5) Most people who hire personal trainers do so, at least in part, because they lack sufficient motivation to remain on a diet or exercise regimen by themselves.

E

livery wrote:
A recent study of people who had successfully lost weight and implemented regular exercise routines in their twenties found that, by the age of forty, most had gained back the weight, stopped exercising regularly, or both. Surprisingly, among the study's subjects who had hired personal trainers to help them lose weight and exercise in their twenties, an even higher percentage had regained the weight or stopped exercising than among subjects who had not hired such trainers. The researchers concluded not only that remaining on an effective weight management and exercise program is difficult, but also that personal trainers are largely ineffective in helping people to remain on an effective weight management and exercise program.

Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument in the passage above?

1) Subjects in the study who had hired personal trainers had, on average, more free time to exercise than did those who had not hired such trainers. Having more free time doesn’t make any difference. We have no information what are they doing in their free time.
2) Some people hire personal trainers for sport-specific training or to rehabilitate injuries, rather than to lose weight or implement a regular exercise program.We are concerned only about those trainers hired to help the people lose weight as the author exactly specifies in the paragraph.
3) The average person's metabolism slows significantly between the ages of thirty and forty, making it more difficult for people aged forty or older to avoid weight gain. This has nothing to do with trainers and it affects equally the people with or without trainer.
4) Many of the personal trainers hired by the people in the study were also dietitians who helped their clients design meal plans. We know that the people hired personal trainers to lose weight and exercise, so dieting and designing meal plans might have been part of the lose weight program. This option doesn’t provide any new information about how efficient were those trainers.
5) Most people who hire personal trainers do so, at least in part, because they lack sufficient motivation to remain on a diet or exercise regimen by themselves.We are learning that those people who hire personal trainers have less motivation to diet and exercise by themselves than the other people who do not hire trainers, so the problem is not with the trainers but with the trainees . If the trainers are not responsible for the inefficiency of the program the argument has no basis.
The argument of the paragraph is that because the percentage of people who regain weight is higher among those who hired trainer than among those who didn’t hire trainer the author concludes that trainers are largely ineffective. So we are looking for the option that weakens this argument.

IMO option 5) is the right answer.

17

The Maxilux car company's design for its new luxury model, the Max 100, included a special design for the tires that was intended to complement the model's image. The winning bid for supplying these tires was submitted by Rubco. Analysts concluded that the bid would only just cover Rubco's costs on the tires, but Rubco executives claim that winning the bid will actually make a profit for the company.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly justifies the claim made by Rubco's executives?

(A) In any Maxilux model, the spare tire is exactly the same make and model as the tires that are mounted on the wheels.

(B) Rubco holds exclusive contracts to supply Maxilux with the tires for a number of other models made by Maxilux.

(C) The production facilities for the Max 100 and those for the tires to be supplied by Rubco are located very near each other.

(D) When people who have purchased a carefully designed luxury automobile need to replace a worn part of it, they almost invariably replace it with a part of exactly the same make and type.

(E) When Maxilux awarded the tire contract to Rubco, the only criterion on which Rubco's bid was clearly ahead of its competitors' bids was price.

D

wrote:
The Maxilux car company's design for its new luxury model, the Max 100, included a special design for the tires that was intended to complement the model's image. The winning bid for supplying these tires was submitted by Rubco. Analysts concluded that the bid would only just cover Rubco's costs on the tires, but Rubco executives claim that winning the bid will actually make a profit for the company.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly justifies the claim made by Rubco's executives?

(A) In any Maxilux model, the spare tire is exactly the same make and model as the tires that are mounted on the wheels.

(B) Rubco holds exclusive contracts to supply Maxilux with the tires for a number of other models made by Maxilux.

(C) The production facilities for the Max 100 and those for the tires to be supplied by Rubco are located very near each other.

(D) When people who have purchased a carefully designed luxury automobile need to replace a worn part of it, they almost invariably replace it with a part of exactly the same make and type.

(E) When Maxilux awarded the tire contract to Rubco, the only criterion on which Rubco's bid was clearly ahead of its competitors' bids was price.


1)Can anyone please explain me why we are eliminating B,C and D options?

Option B)As per my understanding we are eliminating B as it talks about the other models of Maxilux company but our concern is how Rubco makes profit on the winning bid for Max 100 ........Please let me know if my understanding is correct on this answer?

Option C talks about less production cost so it should help Rubco in earning profits. Why are we eliminating this option?

Please explain why D is correct?

2)One more question is that in the passage it is mentioned that the Analyst concluded that the bid would only just cover Rubco's cost on tires.Is this a premise/fact ?Do we have to consider this as a fact? Can we attack what analyst concluded?
Premise: The bid to supply tires for the Max 100 will just cover Rubco's costs.
Conclusion: As a result of winning the bid, Rubco will make a profit.
For the conclusion to be valid, what must be true?
As a result of winning the bid, Rubco must be able to make a profit in SOME OTHER WAY.

Answer choice D: When people who have purchased a carefully designed luxury automobile need to replace a worn part of it, they almost invariably replace it with a part of exactly the same make and type.
This answer choice shows how Rubco will make a profit: when purchasers of the Max 100 need a new tire, they will buy the specially-designed tire made by Rubco.

The correct answer is D.

Reasons to eliminate:

A: The spare tire is irrelevant. It is given as a PREMISE -- as a FACT not in dispute -- that supplying tires for the Max 100 will not yield a profit.

B: Since these contracts are already held by Rubco, they are not affected by the bid to supply tires for the Max 100.

C: How the tires are produced is irrelevant. It is given as a PREMISE -- as a FACT not in dispute -- that supplying tires for the Max 100 will not yield a profit.

E: Irrelevant. It is given as a PREMISE -- as a FACT not in dispute -- that Rubco supplied the winning bid. The correct answer must show how -- as a RESULT of winning the bid -- Rubco will realize a profit.

18

18. Many physicists claim that quantum mechanics may
ultimately be able to explain all fundamental phenomena,
and that, therefore, physical theory will soon be complete.
However, every theory in the history of physics that was
thought to be final eventually had to be rejected for failure to
explain some new observation. For this reason, we can
expect that quantum mechanics will not be the final theory.

Which one of the following arguments is most similar in
its reasoning to the argument above?

(A) Only a few species of plants now grow in very dry climates;
therefore, few species of animals can live in those climates.

(B) Four companies have marketed a new food processing
product; therefore, a fifth company will not be able to market a
similar product.

(C) Your sister is a very good chess player but she has
never won a chess tournament; therefore, she will not
win this chess tournament.

(D) A rare virus infected a group of people a decade ago;
therefore, it will not reinfect the same population
now.

(E) Each team member has failed to live up to people's
expectations; therefore, the team will not live up to
people's expectations.

IMO C

Argument is

X is good but since has never won therefore x will never win

Only C fits the description.

19

Patient Advocacy Association: In a recent ranking of state hospitals, Hospital A received the lowest overall grade based on a patient mortality rate that was nearly twice that of the top-ranked hospital. Mortality rates in five departments (cardiology, oncology, surgery, neurology, and neonatology) were used in the comparison. Clearly, Hospital A provides the lowest quality of care state-wide in these departments.


One reason that the strength of the Patient Advocacy Association’s argument cannot be evaluated is that

(A) The argument makes no mention of deaths of patients seen by multiple departments.

(B) The Patient Advocacy Association has a reputation as a biased third party that does not always objectively weigh the evidence regarding quality of care.

(C) The Patient Advocacy Association has only cited the mortality rate in five departments of the hospitals.

(D) The Patient Advocacy Association has not included data about the underlying health and severity of illness of the individuals served by each of the hospitals.

(E) The Patient Advocacy Association has not included recent trends in mortality rates by hospital.

D for obvious reasons

20

In 1992 outlaw fishing boats began illegally harvesting lobsters from the territorial waters
of the country of Belukia. Soon after, the annual tonnage of lobster legally harvested in
Belukian waters began declining; in 1996, despite there being no reduction in the level of
legal lobster fishing activity, the local catch was 9,000 tons below pre-1992 levels. It is
therefore highly likely that the outlaw fishing boats harvested about 9,000 tons of lobster
illegally that year.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
A. The illegal lobster harvesting was not so extensive that the population of
catchable lobsters in Belukia's territorial waters had sharply declined by 1996.
B. The average annual lobster catch, in tons, of an outlaw fishing boat has increased
steadily since 1992.
C. Outlaw fishing boats do not, as a group, harvest more lobsters than do licensed
lobster-fishing boats.
D. The annual legal lobster harvest in Belukia in 1996 was not significantly less than
9,000 tons.
E. A significant proportion of Belukia's operators of licensed lobster-fishing boats
went out of business between 1992 and 1996.

Clueless!Any thoughts

A

gtvisa2002 wrote:
The argument says all the 9,000 tons were caught by illegal harvesting.

However, illegal harvesting started in 1992 and both illegal and legal harvesting co-exist from 1992 to 1996.
So obviously the number of tons harvested is steadily increasing.

What if, the steady increase, reduced the mature lobsters which are ready to offspring in the next year.....
So constantly the source is depleted. This provides an alternative explanation to the decrease instead of assuming the number of lobsters harvested is the same throughout the period 1992-96.
Can you be little more elaborate....
Ok let me try.
Say in 1992 there were 100,000 tons of lobsters. Illegal harvesting:10,000 tons Legal:20,000 tons so we are left with 70,000 tons.

Assuming the harvesting rate remains the same, we started 1992 with 100,000, 1993 with 70,000 : we will have only 40,000 for 1994, 10,000 for 1995 and for 1996 we will not have any lobsters available.

The argument assumes that every year this 100,000 tons remains the same in the starting of every year so the lost 9,000 tons were caught by illegal harvesting team.

Option A says that the population remained the same, confirming the assumption.

21

Governments have only one response to public criticism of socially necessary services: regulation of the activity of providing those services. But governments inevitably make the activity more expensive by regulating it, and that is particularly troublesome in these times of strained financial resources. However, since public criticism of child-care services has undermined all confidence in such services, and since such services are socially necessary, the government is certain to respond.
Which one of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
(A) The quality of child care will improve.
(B) The cost of providing child-care services will increase.
(C) The government will use funding to foster advances in child care.
(D) If public criticism of policy is strongly voiced, the government is certain to respond.
(E) If child-care services are not regulated, the cost of providing child care will not increase.

OA is B

22

17. With Proposition 13, if you bought your house 11 years ago for $75,000, your property tax would be approximately $914 a year (1 percent of $75,000 increased by 2 percent each year for 11 years); and if your neighbor bought an identical house next door to you for $200,000 this year, his tax would be $2,000 (1 percent of $200,000). Without Proposition 13, both you and your neighbor would pay $6,000 a year in property taxes (3 percent of $200,000).

Which of the following is the conclusion for which the author most likely is arguing in the passage above?
(A) Proposition 13 is unconstitutional because it imposes an unequal tax on properties of equal value.
(B) If Proposition 13 is repealed, every homeowner is likely to experience a substantial increase in property taxes.
(C) By preventing inflation from driving up property values, Proposition 13 has saved homeowners thousands of dollars in property taxes.
(D) If Proposition 13 is not repealed, identical properties will continue to be taxed at different rates.
(E) Proposition 13 has benefited some homeowners more than others.

OA after some explanations

B

With proposition 13, they pay less property tax; while one would be $914, $2000 other. If it is repealed, then each has to pay $6000.

If you elaborate the question:
Without proposition 13 , the value of the property will be revalued. (Each house will be $200.000, moreover the assumption is based on the identical houses.) With proposition 13, you pay a fixed property tax(%1 for years); without proposition 13, you pay a current rate (%3).

23

B

With proposition 13, they pay less property tax; while one would be $914, $2000 other. If it is repealed, then each has to pay $6000.

If you elaborate the question:
Without proposition 13 , the value of the property will be revalued. (Each house will be $200.000, moreover the assumption is based on the identical houses.) With proposition 13, you pay a fixed property tax(%1 for years); without proposition 13, you pay a current rate (%3).

E

24

In a monogamous culture, 100% of the adults are married. The average number of children per family is five and over-population is a threat. Programs to encourage birth-control have been ineffective. It has been suggested that this failure is due to these programs ignoring a tradition that values male children very highly, so that every parent wants to have at least one son. It is proposed that couples be encouraged to use birth-control measures after the birth of their first son.

If this proposal is widely accepted in the culture, we may expect that:

(A) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
(B) the rate of population increase will be slowed, and the gender balance in future generations will remain as it is at present.
(C) the rate of population growth will remain the same, and future generations will contain a disproportionately high number of females.
(D) there will be no significant effect either on population growth or on gender balance.
(E) the population will decline precipitously, because approximately half of all families will have only a single child

A

IMO A

Since people will start using birth control after one son therefore population growth will decline. This rules out C and D.

Since most families will have a maximum of 1son whereas other families have two, three or more daughters.

Not enough information is provided to chose E. even if 50% of the population has one son, we don't know what percentage would have one, two, three and more daughters with at max one or no sons. Don't expect GMAT questions to expect that without this infomation we can find the solution. Therefore ruled out E

Between A and B, I ruled out B because all families will have at max one son whereas there is no limit to girls.even if 50% of the population will have max one son then the rest of 50% will have one or more than one daughters. Hence there will be a disproportionate number of females. This rules out B

Answer is A

25

At one time, European and Japanese companies tried to imitate their American rivals. Today, American appliance manufacturers import European scientists to lead their research staffs; American automakers design cars that mimic the styling of German, Italian, and French imports; and American electronics firms boast in their advertising of Japanese-style devotion to quality and reliability. In the world of high technology, America has lost the battle for international prestige.

Each of the following statements, if true, would help to support the claim above EXCEPT:

(A) An American camera company claims in its promotional literature to produce cameras as fine as the best Swiss imports.
(B) An American maker of stereo components designs its products to resemble those of a popular Japanese firm.
(C) An American manufacturer of video games uses a brand name chosen because it sounds like a Japanese word.
(D) An American maker of televisions studies German-made televisions in order to adopt German manufacturing techniques.
(E) An American maker of frozen foods advertises its dinners as Real European-style entrees prepared by fine French and Italian chefs.

IMO E

We are talking about technology. Not food stuff. Option E is the odd one out.

26

In the effort to fire a Civil Service employee, his or her manager may have to spend up to $100,000 of tax money. Since Civil Service employees know how hard it is to fire them, they tend to loaf. This explains in large part why the government is so inefficient.
It can be properly inferred on the basis of the statements above that the author believes which of the following?
I. Too much job security can have a negative influence on workers.
II. More government workers should be fired.
III. Most government workers are Civil Service employees.
(A) I only
(B) I and III only
(C) II only
(D) I, II, and III
(E) III only

Tricky problem!, but I think the answer is A.

I. Too much job security can have a negative influence on works. This is a very close and logical flow from the statement, which makes two distinct points--firstly, that Civil Service employees know how hard it is to fire them, and secondly, that because they know how hard it is to be fired they tend to loaf. Therefore, their job security causes them to underperform.

II. More government workers should be fired. This can not be confirmed in the statement, because the final sentence is unclear about which statement explains why the government is so inefficient. Is it because it costs up to $100,000 just to fire someone OR is it because people loaf due to job security? It's too ambiguous to tell.

III. Most government workers are Civil Service employees. There is no reference to number at all in the statement.

Therefore, A.

27

Tooten County is populated by a significantly lower percentage of young families than the typical county in the nation. Yet, per capita retail sales of children's bicycles are above the national average.

Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the seeming paradox described above?

A. The two leading retailers of children's bicycles in Tooten County spend a remarkable 50% of their marketing budget on attracting residents of neighboring counties.

B. A local manufacturer of children's bicycles has just announced that national sales are up 20% over last year.

C. Retail outlets in Tooten County import the majority of their children's bicycles from Canada.

D. Elementary schools in Tooten County continue to promote the values of exercise to its students.

E. Residents of Tooten County rent children's bicycles as about the same rate as residents of other counties in the nation.

IMO - D OA - not known

A


Tooten County is populated by a significantly lower percentage of young families than the typical county in the nation. Yet, per capita retail sales of children's bicycles are above the national average.

...lower % of young families...
Higher sales of children bicycle....

Both statements contradict as there are fewer younger people in the county. But sales for children bicycle is high.

Which of the following, if true, best reconciles the seeming paradox described above?

A. The two leading retailers of children's bicycles in Tooten County spend a remarkable 50% of their marketing budget on attracting residents of neighboring counties.
Reconciles the anomaly as younger people from other counties visit and purchase children bicycles. Since there are fewer children in tootie county therefore customers are from neighboring areas.


B. A local manufacturer of children's bicycles has just announced that national sales are up 20% over last year.
No context. Does not link or explain the difference between the two statements in blue. In fact this just rephrased the 2nd sentence. The question still remains unanswered that if there are fewer younger people in the county then who is buying the cycles.


C. Retail outlets in Tooten County import the majority of their children's bicycles from Canada.
Again does not answer who is buying the products.

D. Elementary schools in Tooten County continue to promote the values of exercise to its students.
Even if elementary schools promote exercise one young adult will only buy one bicycle. The question remains if there are fewer younger people who are going to elementary school, does it justify a higher per capita in sale of bicycles. Even if all the young adults buy the bicycles even then sales of children bicycles should not be higher considering there are fewer children there.

E. Residents of Tooten County rent children's bicycles as about the same rate as residents of other counties in the nation.
No context. Does not answer who is buying the bicycles.

IMO - D OA - not known

28

Ace Automotive Group, a publicly held manufacturer of cars and light trucks, plans to move the production of engines for its automobiles to Mexico from plants in Indiana. However, Ace Automotive will still assemble its cars and trucks in the United States. The president of Ace Automotive announced to Wall Street analysts that this move will save the company $20 million per year even after accounting for the increased transportation costs needed to get the Mexican produced engines to Ace's assembly plants versus current engine transportation costs.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?

A. Ace Automotive Group's stock price will rise.

B. Ace Automotive will have to deal with pickets and protests when it closes its engine production facilities in Indiana.

C. Ace Automotive would save more than $20 million per year from this move if engine transportation charges from Mexico equaled the old transportation charges from Indiana.

D. Ace Automotive Group's assembly plants are, on average, closer to the old Indiana engine plants than they are to the new Mexican engine plants.

E. Ace plans to spend less than $20 million on increased transportation costs.

IMO - D OA - not known.
I am confused in D because increased transportation cost does not necessarily mean increased distance.
But D looks best by POE.

C

Ace Automotive Group, a publicly held manufacturer of cars and light trucks, plans to move the production of engines for its automobiles to Mexico from plants in Indiana. However, Ace Automotive will still assemble its cars and trucks in the United States. The president of Ace Automotive announced to Wall Street analysts that this move will save the company $20 million per year even after accounting for the increased transportation costs needed to get the Mexican produced engines to Ace's assembly plants versus current engine transportation costs.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions?

A. Ace Automotive Group's stock price will rise.
We donot know the company,s financial position or public sentiment therefore cannot comment on the Impact on the stok price. Also it is possible that the company may need to incur additional costs for tranortation tfrom Mexico to assembly p,ant.

B. Ace Automotive will have to deal with pickets and protests when it closes its engine production facilities in Indiana.
We donot know how satisfied or unsatisfied the companys workers are. Or what will be the impact on their morale.

C. Ace Automotive would save more than $20 million per year from this move if engine transportation charges from Mexico equaled the old transportation charges from Indiana.
written that the company expects to save $20 million per year even after accounting for INCREASED tranortation costs........ If the costs are the same I.e there is no increase then the company would be able to save more than $20 million. Hence C should be the answer.


D. Ace Automotive Group's assembly plants are, on average, closer to the old Indiana engine plants than they are to the new Mexican engine plants.
We donot know whether the plants are closer or not just that transportation cost will rise. The terrain could be difficult and Mexico plant can be close. So we really donot know

E. Ace plans to spend less than $20 million on increased transportation costs.
No context. As $ 20million is what would be saved not the total transportation. Cost.


Answer should be C


I am confused in D because increased transportation cost does not necessarily mean increased distance.

29

Elapsed Time: 00:00startlapstop
Only a reduction of 10 percent in the number of scheduled flights using Greentown's airport will allow the delays that are so common there to be avoided. Hevelia airstrip, 40 miles away, would, if upgraded and expanded, be an attractive alternative for fully 20 percent of the passengers using Greentown airport. Nevertheless, experts reject the claim that turning Hevelia into a full-service airport would end the chronic delays at Greentown.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to justify the experts' position?

(A) Turning Hevelia into a full-service airport would require not only substantial construction at the airport itself, but also the construction of new access highways.

(B) A second largely undeveloped airstrip close to Greentown airport would be a more attractive alternative than Hevelia for many passengers who now use Greentown.

(C) Hevelia airstrip lies in a relatively undeveloped area but would, if it became a full-service airport, be a magnet for commerc ial and residential development.

(D) If an airplane has to wait to land, the extra jet fuel required adds significantly to the airline's costs.

(E) Several airlines use Greentown as a regional hub, so that most flights landing at Greentown have many passengers who then take different flights to reach their final destinations.

I arrived at the correct answer through the Process of elimination , but I still couldn't figure out why E is correct

E

IMO E

Only one that shows that the new airport Would not prevent delays because other airlines use green... Airport for connecting flights.

30

Environmentalist: The commissioner of the Fish and Game Authority would have the public believe that increases in the number of marine fish caught demonstrate that this resource is no longer endangered. This is a specious argument, as unsound as it would be to assert that the ever-increasing rate at which rain forests are being cut down demonstrates a lack of danger to that resource. The real cause of the increased fish-catch is a greater efficiency in using technologies that deplete resources.

The environmentalist’s statements, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?
(A) The use of technology is the reason for the increasing encroachment of people on nature.
(B) It is possible to determine how many fish are in the sea in some way other than by catching fish.
(C) The proportion of marine fish that are caught is as high as the proportion of rain forest trees that are cut
down each year.
(D) Modern technologies waste resources by catching inedible fish.
(E) Marine fish continue to be an endangered resource.

What I understand from the argument is:
The commissioner wants the public to believe that marine fish is not endangered anymore, whereas , it is the reverse case.
I think even A support's the conclusion well enough by saying that technology is the root cause for encroachment ?

IMO E

Commissioner says fish are not endangered.
Environmentalist argues and gives a conclusion that fish are still endangered.

The environmentalist is not talking against technology but is givi g a counter argument to the commissioners argument.
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