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Flashcards in Spideys Revision Deck (141)
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1

Not........????
Rather ......?????

When to use these two.

Not.....but
Rather ..... Than

Not...but is used without any preference.

Rather than has a preference

2

Targetted.......

Targetted at is correct
Targeted to is wrong

3

Estimated ??????

Estimated to be

4

Everyone is ?????

Everyone is singular

5

Using Due to

Due to means caused by and can be replaced by caused by

It does not mean because of

Example: the game was postponed due to rain - incorrect

Example the game was postponed because of the rain.

Example: the game,s postponement was due to rain.

6

Neither....????
Either.....

Neither...nor
Either.... Or

Always check if the verbs agree after or / nor

Neither the prosecutors argument nor the mountains of evidence were able to convince the jury

Verb has to agree with subject following nor

Not (a or b) nor c is also ok

7

So ......??????

So (adj) as to (verb)

So..as to structure is used as a comparative.
If you can replace so as to with in order to then the structure is wrong.

Correct: her debts are so extreme as to threaten the future of the company.

So as is never correct in GMAT

Incorrect: he exercises everyday so as to build his stamina.

Correct: he exercises everyday in an effort to build his stamina.

8

Compare to vs compare with

Compare to usually refers describing the resemblance between unlike things

He compared her to sa summer day
Scientists sometimes compare the human brain to a computer

Compare with refers to examining two like things

The police compared the forged signature with the original.

9

Whether vs. if

On the GMAT, whether will (almost) always beat if
Incorrect: Her client didn’t tell her if he had sent his payment yet.
Correct: Her client didn’t tell her whether he had sent his payment yet.

Whethervs.If

Whether”iscorrectwhenasentencedescribesalternatives

CORRECT: “Whethertovoteornot.”“If”iscorrectwhenasentencedescribesahypotheticalsituation. CORRECT: “Ifheweretoparticipate,hewould

10

Each

Each
From: http://www.testmagic.com/forums/showthread.php?t=5164
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This question tests one use of "each" which most of us ignore. The traditional rule still holds true i.e. "the
subject of a sentence beginning with each is grammatically singular".
But there is another rule which says that: When each follows a plural subject, the verb and subsequent
pronouns remain in the plural: e.g. the apartments each have their own private entrances (not has its own
private entrance)
1. Three cats each eat ...
2. Three cats, each of which eats ...,
In 1, each is postpositive Adj, whereas in 2, it is distributive determiner.
Television can be superficial, as when three major networks each broadcast exactly the same.
Adverb clause of manner with temporal adverb clause:
Television can be superficial, as [TV is superficial] when three networks each broad cast the
same
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
quote:

11

Although it claims to delve into political issues, television can be superficial such as when each of the three major
networks broadcast exactly the same statement from a political candidate.
(A) superficial such as when each of the three major networks
(B) superficial, as can sometimes occur if all of the three major networks
(C) superficial if the three major networks all
(D) superficial whenever each of the three major networks
(E) superficial, as when the three major networks each

oks wrote:
How can E be correct if each broadcasts, not broadcast??
IMO "E"...

Although it claims to delve into political issues, television can be superficial such as when each of the three major networks broadcast exactly the same statement from a political candidate.

(A) superficial such as when each of the three major networks
Each.....broadcast...S-V mismatch.
(B) superficial, as can sometimes occur if all of the three major networks
Although X, Y....Here X, Y should be complete clause....which is not the case.

(C) superficial if the three major networks all
Although X, Y....Here X, Y should be complete clause....which is not the case....because of if.


(D) superficial whenever each of the three major networks
Each.....broadcast...S-V mismatch.

(E) superficial, as when the three major networks each
Since subject is Networks....not each....so "each" following subject has no bearing on the verb...as opposed to A, and D where "each" is the subject.

12

X has half the chance........y has

X has half the chance that Y has.

13

So vs it

'So' is used to replace a Verb in a Sentence whereas 'It' is used to replace a Noun.

14

Curfew is ......

Second, "curfew" is a singular count noun and therefore requires a determiner (the).

15

Skill is.......

I agree with you that skill can be both a count noun as well as a non-count noun. it
all depends upon the context.
Have a look at the example below:
1. Harry knows quite a few driving skills.
Conversely, if were to ask Harry about his driving skills, I would ask.
2. How much skill do you have in driving a car, Harry?
So you see, the word "skill" remains the same but depending on the context, skill
can be a non-count or a count noun?

16

Concerned for vs concerned with

Concerned for = worried or anxious.
Concerned with = related to.
so the correct one should be "He is concerned for investor relations "
This is concerned with investor relations is probably the right usage.

17

As such

As Such

[often with negative] in the exact sense of the word:
it is possible to stay overnight here although there is no guest house as such

Usually used for speech rather than written.

18

Reduced vs reduction

Reduced Costs = Reduction IN costs (result of reduction)
"Reduction of" is used when reducing by a certain amount. e.g. reduction of 20%.

19


Schliemann determined at the age of seven to find the site of ancient Troy and (devoted his subsequent career to
do it).
a)...
b) has devoted his subsequent career to do that
c) devoted his subsequent career to such an end
d) has devoted his subsequent career for that
e) devoted his subsequent career to that end

E

Schliemann determined at the age of seven to find the site of ancient Troy and devoted his subsequent career to do it.



A. devoted his subsequent career to do it

Not idiomatic and it is used very ambiguously . TO DO SO is preferable


B. has devoted his subsequent career to do that

has means he is still devoting and not parallel with determined


C. devoted his subsequent career to such an end

Awkward


D. has devoted his subsequent career for that

wrong tense


E. devoted his subsequent career to that end[/quote]

correct tense and use of THAT END, which clearly refers to the first part of the sentence

20

The domesticated camel, which some scholars date around the twelfth century B.C., was the key to the
development of the spice trade in the ancient world.
a. The domesticated camel, which some scholars date
b. The domesticated camel, which some scholars have thought to occur
c. Domesticating the camel, dated by some scholars at
d. The domestication of the camel, thought by some scholars to have occurred
e. The camel's domestication, dated by some scholars to have been

IMO: D

(A) The domesticated camel, which some scholars date
Doesn't make sense. One cannot date a domesticated camel, unless they are into that sort of thing.

(B) The domesticated camel, which some scholars having thought to occur
Sounds weird

(C) Domesticating the camel, dated by some scholars at
"Domesticating" does not agree with tense

(D) The domestication of the camel, thought by some scholars to have occurred
Now this one looks pretty good. Tenses agree and it is clear that we are talking about the impact of the domestication of the camel.

(E) The camel’s domestication, dated by some scholars to have been
"Have been" is present perfect, but our sentence deals with the past.

_________________
I don't know what to say, really. Three minutes to the biggest battle of our professional lives. You find out life's this game of inches, so is football. Because in either game - life or football - the margin for error is so small. I mean, one half a step too late or too early and you don't quite make it. One half second too slow, too fast and you don't quite catch it. I'll tell you this, in any fight it's the guy whose willing to die whose gonna win that inch. That's football guys, that's all it is. Now, what are you gonna do?

21

The central issue before the court was how far the regulatory agencies should go in requiring better working conditions in factories.
a. in requiring better working conditions in factories
b. as far as requiring better working conditions in factories
c. in their requirement that factories should have better working conditions
d. as far as requiring that factories should have better working conditions
e. to require factories to have better working conditons

A

The sentence tricks you to believe that its a subjunctive case and hence you should pick the base form of the verb that is REQUIRE.

As require can be used with TO : We require you TO BE in the office.

Or with THAT : The boss requires THAT John be in the office.

But read the sentence carefully do we really need a subjunctive case here ? No

The central issue before the court was how far the regulatory agencies should go .

Should in the original sentence indicates that this is not a subjunctive case and we dont need to use the base form of the verb.

22

Prepositions

Prepositions
Any questions? Ask TestMagic!
Jump to:
• Rule
• Be careful!!
• List of prepositions
Rule
Back to top
the most important rule for prepositions is:
preposition + noun
This is the TestMagic list of most of the prepositions you will ever see on the TOEFL.
There are a few more prepositions in English that are not listed here, but you will
probably not see them on the TOEFL since they are fairly uncommon.
This list is very important-you should know at least 90% of this list. And don't forget,
after every preposition, we must have a noun, and only a noun; NEVER can we have
a verb after a preposition.
Be careful!!
Back to top
Six (6) of these prepositions can also be subordinating conjunctions . In other words,
they can be followed by a noun or by a sentence, depending on the meaning.
Huh? Can you show me some examples??
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Sure, no problem. Look:
• After lunch, I felt sleepy.
o In this sentence, After is a preposition and is therefore followed by
only one noun, lunch (no verb here!!).
• After I worked twelve hours, I felt tired.
o In this sentence, After is a subordinating conjunction and is followed
by a sentence, I worked twelve hours.
• I worked until midnight.
o Here, until is a preposition and is followed by a noun, midnight. No
verbs, please!!!
• I worked until I felt tired.
o In this sentence, until is a subordinating conjunction and is followed
by a sentence, I felt tired.
List
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1. aboard
2. about
3. above
4. absent
5. according to
6. across
7. after (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other
words, it can be followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the
meaning).
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8. against
9. ahead of
10. all over
11. along
12. alongside
13. amid or amidst
14. among
15. around
16. as (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other words,
it can be followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the
meaning).
17. as of
18. as to
19. as + ADVERB OF TIME + as
20. as early as
21. as late as
22. as often as
23. as much as
24. as many as, etc.
25. aside
26. astride
27. at
28. away from
29. bar
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30. barring
31. because of
32. before (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other
words, it can be followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the
meaning).
33. behind
34. below
35. beneath
36. beside
37. besides
38. between
39. beyond
40. but
41. by
42. by the time of
43. circa
44. close by
45. close to
46. concerning
47. considering
48. despite
49. down
50. due to
51. during
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52. except
53. except for
54. excepting
55. excluding
56. failing
57. for (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other words, it can be
followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the meaning).
58. for all (this means despite)
59. from
60. given
61. in
62. in between
63. in front of
64. in keeping with
65. in place of
66. in spite of
67. in view of
68. including
69. inside
70. instead of
71. into
72. less
73. like
74. minus
75. near
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76. near to
77. next to
78. notwithstanding
79. of
80. off
81. on
82. on top of
83. onto
84. opposite
85. other than
86. out
87. out of
88. outside
89. over
90. past
91. pending
92. per
93. plus
94. regarding
95. respecting
96. round
97. save
98. saving
99. similar to
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100. since (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other words, it can be
followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the meaning).
101. TestMagic List © 2002
102. than
103. thanks to (this means because of)
104. through
105. throughout
106. till
107. to
108. toward or towards (both forms are correct, but toward is considered
slightly more formal)
109. under
110. underneath
111. unlike
112. until (This one can also be a subordinating conjunction . In other words, it can be
followed by a noun or a sentence, depending on the meaning).
113. unto
114. up
115. upon
116. up to
117. versus
118. via
119. wanting
120. with
121. within
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122. without

23


Although about 99 percent of the more than 50 million Turks are Muslims, the republic founded by Mustafa Kemal
Ataturk in 1923 is resolutely secular.
a...
b. Although about 99 percent of over 50 million of the
c. Although about 99 percent of more than 50 million
d. Despite the fact that about 99 percent of more than 50 million
e. Despite the fact that about 99 percent of over 50 million


A

Whew! This is one of the most commonly asked questions... I think it's going to take
a while to explain, and I don't think I can do it tonight since I've got class in the
morning.
Here's the short answer: if we use "the," we are saying that there are only 50 million
Turks in the whole world; if we don't use "the," we are saying that there are possibly
more than 50 million Turks in the world.
This one's similar to the one in the Official Guide, the one about the "Thomas
Jefferson... setting free the more than 500 slaves..."
All things being equal, I'd have to say that "invest in" is slightly preferable to "invest
into."
I think there's also a very slight difference in meaning--"invest in" would be the
better choice for such traditional investments as stocks and bonds, while "invest
into" could be used in more metaphorical investments, such as the time, energy, and
love you might shower upon your children.
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24

Like vs as

Just as vs "in the same way that"

1) My Siamese cat moved across the floor just like / as a lion stalking its prey.

2) My Siamese cat moved across the floor just as / like a lion stalking its prey moves

Like vs As

Use like when you want to focus on two nouns;
Use as when you want to focus on two nouns doing two actions.

Another little trick is that "just as" can replace "in the same way that..."

Let's compare two very similar sentences that could cause confusion:

1) My Siamese cat moved across the floor just like a lion stalking its prey.
here like is better because we are compareing cat with lion. we cannot compare move with stalking as both actions are different.

2) My Siamese cat moved across the floor just as a lion stalking its prey moves.
This one sounds very good to me; it explains how a my cat moved.

25

The majority of the talk was devoted to an account of the experimental methods used by investigators in the
field.
a. ...
b. The greater part of the talk was
c. The bulk of the talk has been
d. A large amount of the talk has been
e. A predominance of the talk was

B

Good one!! "majority" should be used with count nouns only.
Make sense? Hope so!!
Erin
The majority of the water is dirty.
Is "unidiomatic," because "water" is a non-count noun.
Just in case, count nouns can be counted (bottle, idea, person, brush, etc.);
noncount
nouns cannot be counted (water, furniture, information, soap, luggage, etc.).
There is, however, a lot of overlap between the two--beer, coke, coffee, material,
love, etc. can all be either count or non-count, depending on our meaning, context,
or level of formality.
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HTH!!

26

Do I say:

1) Most of the people is/are...?"
2)Most of the water is/are...?"
3) One of the people is/are...
4) Each of the students is/are.
5) 1% of the 100 people is/are...
6. The teacher together with the student is / are going to...?
7. The teacher and the student is / are going to?
8) the number of people has / have increased
9) A number of people has // have gone
10) People are leaving California in greater numbers (correct / wrong)
11) People are spending more money on the Internet in greater numbers.(correct / wrong)

Each / Every / one are (Singluar or plural)
10% / Half / all and most are (Singular or plural)

Here's the rule: quantifier + of + NOUN + verb
The NOUN determines whether the verb is singular or plural.

For example:
Most of the people is/are...
because the quantifier "most" refers to "people," (a plural noun) so "most" is plural Countable
in this sentence
.
Most of the water is/are...
because the quantifier "most" refers to "water," (a non-count noun) so "most" is
Plural Non- Countable in this sentence.

1) Most of the people are...
"Most" becomes a count noun because "people" is a count noun.

2) Most of the water is...
"Most" becomes a non-count noun because "water" is a non-count noun.

Of course, if the quantifier is always singular, then the verb must always be singular,
too.

3) One of the people is...
4) Each of the students is...
5) 1% of the 100 people is/are...

because, of course, 1% of 100 is one, and that's singular, right?
.

6. The teacher together with the student IS (or ARE) going to...?
7. The teacher and the student ARE (or IS)going to?

Generally speaking, we need a conjunction to create a plural subject from more than

"together with" is NOT a conjunction, and therefore cannot create a plural subject.
"and," on the other hand, IS a conjunction and CAN create a plural subject.

I'm concluding:

"a number of ..." always takes plural verbs.
"the number of ..." always takes singular verbs.
8) the number of people has increased
9) A number of people have gone
The important thing here is that the number in the first example (the
number of women employed outside the home) is an actual number--35,000,
for example. Even if you add more women to the original number, there will
still be one number, right?
The second usage of "numbers" is also correct, and means that there are
many people in that group. For example, it is correct to say:
10) People are leaving California in greater numbers.
11) People are spending more money on the Internet in greater numbers.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

27

Credit....

• credit SB with STH (verb): give responsibility for. Thomas Edison is credited with
inventing the light bulb.
• credit X to Y (verb): give money or credit to. The bank credited $1 million to
trebla's account.
• credit for (noun): money received for or in exchange for something. The
customer received a $20 credit for the interruption in service.

28

Thinking words

So there are a few things you need to know here for GMAT Sentence Correction.
First is this--you should know that GMAT likes to test you on "thinking words." These are
words that indicate some sort of mental process, such as believe, belief, idea, theory, notion,
concept, etc. Please note that both verbs and nouns can be considered "thinking words."
GMAT typically likes to follow these words with that and a sentence. For example, on the
GMAT it's better to say:
• Lucise's belief that the Earth is flat was easily accepted.
than to say:
• Lucise's belief of the Earth being flat was easily accepted.
It is okay to use of if we want to indicate only a noun. That's why, for example, we say theory
of relativity.
In this case, if we choose answer choices that use of instead of that, we seem to be talking
more about theories of land mammals; we are not identifying the action of those land
mammals. In other words, with the that, we are leaving out what it is that the theory purports
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the mammals did.

29

Crisis

Crises is the plural of crisis

30

Data

Data is plural of datum