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Flashcards in Circulatory disorders Deck (71)
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1

In the healthy heart where does de-ogygenated blood enter first?

The right atrium via the cranial and caudal vena cavae

2

What is the name of the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle?

Tricuspid valve

3

Where does blood go from the right ventricle?

to the lungs via the pulmonary arteries

4

Where does oxygenated blood enter the heart?

the left atrium via the pulmonary veins

5

What is the name of the valve between the left atrium and left ventricle?

Bicuspid or mitral valve

6

what is the definition of heart failure?

Circulatory failure where the heart is unable to maintain an adequate circulation for the rest of the body

7

What are the clinical signs of acute heart failure?

The animal presents in cardiogenic shock.
Collapsed
Pale MMS
Slow CRT
Weak femoral pulses

8

What would be the appropriate first aid treatment for an animal with acute heart failure?

Reduce dress levels
administer oxygen in a stress free manner
Keep as quiet as possible - cage rest or sit with them
monitor core temperature and cool/warm if necessary

9

What might show that first aid treatment of acute heart failure is successful?

respiration rate should drop

10

On an animal with acute heart failure how might the vet administer glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)?

to the inside of the ear

11

What would left sided heart failure lead to?

a build up of blood within the lungs - pulmonary oedema

12

What might the symptoms of left sided heart failure be?

Couching
Dyspnoes and tachypnoea
murmurs and dysrhythmias
exercise intolerance and lethargy
sometimes cyanosis in severe cases

13

What would right sided heart failure lead to?

increased blood pressure in the systemic circulation leading to fluid being forced out of the blood vessels around the body, especially in the abdomen

Ascites

14

What are the main symptoms of right sided heart failure?

Ascites
Hepatomegaly and splenomegaly
exercise intolerance
fatigue and lethargy
Pale mms
tachycardia
weak femoral pulses
dyspnoea and tachypnoea
cyanosis
murmurs and dysrhymias

15

What management plan should be put in place to maintain QOL in chronic heart failure patients?

regular small amounts of exercise
achieve a healthy BCS
Palatable diet low in salt
Healthy treats
monitor electrolytes
drug therapy

16

What type of drugs might be used in a patient with chronic heart failure?

diuretics to reduce fluid build up
cardiac drugs that reduce blood pressure and increase sodium excretion, or increase contractility

17

What might a vet use to diagnose heart failure?

Auscultation
ECG
Doppler ultrasound with colour flow
right later and and DV radiographs
Blood tests - biochem (urea/crea) and electrolytes

18

What is congenital heart failure?

a defect that the animal is born with

19

What is the term for heart failure that develops later in life?

acquired heart defects

20

What is Patent ductus arteriosus?

The connection between the systemics and pulmonary circulations does not close at birth, which leads to blood being shunted from the aorta into the pulmonary artery which then overloads the lungs

21

How can patent ductus arteriosus be detected?

by a loud machinery-type murmur at first vaccination

22

What is the treatment for patent ductus arteriosus?

surgical closure of the defect

23

What is the most common congenital heart defect?

Patent ductus arteriosus

24

What condition might be detected by a loud machinery-type heart murmur

Patent ductus arteriosus

25

What is the name of the heart defect that causes a link between the pulmonary and systemic circulations?

Patent ductus arteriosus

26

What is Aortic stenosis?

narrowing of the aorta

27

What can result from Aortic stenosis?

the heart muscle thickens as it has to work harder

28

How can aortic stenosis be detected?

audible heart murmur

29

What is the treatment for aortic stenosis?

symptomatic treatment - no surgery

30

What is Pulmonic stenosis?

narrowing of the pulmonary artery