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Flashcards in Endocrine And Metabolic Dissorders Deck (36)
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1

What is Hyperadrenocorticism more commonly known as?

Cushing's disease

2

What species is cushings disease most common in?

Dogs

3

What causes cushings disease?

Excessive cortisol in the body. Either due to excessive steroid use or an over production of cortisol by the adrenal glands

4

What can cause over production of cortisol by the adrenal glands in cushings disease?

A tumour on the pituitary gland (pituitary dependent HAC) which over stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol
Or a tumour on the adrenal gland (adrenal dependent HAC)

5

What is the most common form of Hyperadrenocorticism ?

Pituitary-dependent HAC

6

What are the clinical signs of cushings disease?

Polyuria/ polydipsia
Polyphagia
Pot belly
Panting
Bilateral Alopecia and skin changes (thin inelastic skin)
Muscle atrophy and weakness

7

What are the diagnostics for cushings disease?

Blood tests: haematology and biochemistry
ACTH stimulation test
Low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST)
High-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST)
Endogenous ACTH assay
Abdominal ultrasonography
Abdominal radiography
MRI or CT (pituitary and adrenal areas)

8

What tests would be used to confirm cushings disease?

ACTH stimulation
LDDST

9

What tests would be used to differentiate between pituitary-dependent and adrenal dependent HAC ?

HDDST
ACTH assay

10

How would pituitary-dependent HAC be treated?

Medically with trilostane (veterinary licensed product) or mitotane (human-licences product) if there are complications

11

How can adrenal- dependent HAC be treated?

Drugs or surgical removal

12

What are the nursing care point for a patient with cushings disease?

Monitor vital and clinical signs
Assist VS with diagnostic tests
Observe after blood sampling for haematoma formation and handle carefully as brushing can occur easily
Provide water
Clan and groom as necessary
Administer meds prescribes by VS

13

What is Hypoadrenocorticism more commonly known as?

Addison's disease

14

Shat causes Addison's disease?

A reduction in, or failure of steroid production by the adrenals

15

What causes the reduction of steroid production by the adrenals in Addison's disease?

Usually immune destruction of the adrenal gland but may also be a consequence of treating Hyperadrenocorticism

16

What does Addison's diseases cause?

Electrolyte Imbalances, hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and dehydration

17

What is hyponatraemia?

Low sodium

18

What is hyperkalaemia?

High potassium

19

Which electrolyte imbalance caused by Addison's disease can be life threatening?

Hyperkalaemia

20

What are the initial clinical signs of Addison's disease?

Lethargy and inappetence but can be vague

21

What are the clinical signs of untreated Addison's disease?

Anorexia
Vomiting
Haemorrhagic diarrhoea
Hypotension
Weakness
Bradycardia
Collapse

22

What are the diagnostics for Addison's disease ?

Haematology and biochemistry Sodium:potassium ratio
ACTH stimulation test
ECG

23

What would the treatment be for a patient with Addison's in an acute crisis?

Shock rate fluid therapy to reduce potassium levels and rehydrate
Intravenous corticosteroids

24

What is the treatment for a stable Addison's patient?

Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
Monitor treatment by measuring the sodium:potassium ratio

25

What is the nursing care needed for a patient with Addison's disease?

Monitor vital and clinical signs (especially heart rate if in crisis)
Assist VS with diagnostic tests
Administer meds prescribed by VS
fluid therapy (high in saline/low potassium)
Encourage eating
Provide fresh water
Clean and groom as necessary
Take outside frequently
ECG when heart rate is low

26

What causes hyperthyroidism?

Overproduction of thyroxine by the thyroid gland as a result of benign neoplasia

27

What are the clinical signs of hyperthyroidism?

Polyphagia with weight loss
Emaciation
Aggression and hyperactivity
Hear murmur and tachycardia
Polyuria/polydipsia
Vomiting and diarrhoea

28

What diagnostics can be used for hyperthyroidism?

Blood tests: haematology and biochemistry, total t4

29

What is the treatment for hyperthyroidism?

Administration of methimazole or carbimazole, radioactive iodine, or thyroidectomy.

30

What is the nursing care for a patient with hyperthyroidism?

Monitor vital and clinical signs
Assist veterinary surgeon with diagnostic tests
Reduce patient stress as much as possible
Feed a suitable diet
Provide water freely
Clea and goon as necessary
Administer meds prescribed by VS
provide post op nursing and observation for hypocalcaemic complications after thyroidectomy
Follow protocol for nursing after radioactive iodine treatment