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1

Which rater error occurs when the observer allows the rating of an individual on one trait or characteristic to colour the ratings on other traits or​ characteristics?

A. Harshness
B. Central tendency
C. Halo effect
D. Leniency

C. Halo effect

2

The changing employment​ pool, globalization,​ mergers, and strategic alliances are some factors that have led to​ _______________.    

A. multiculturalism
B. workforce diversity
C. social diversity
D. stereotypes

B. workforce diversity

3

Perceptual​ _________ refers to the tendency to​ select, ignore, and distort cues in such a manner that they fit together to form a homogeneous picture of the target.

A. constancy
B. consistency
C. selectivity
D. tendency

B. consistency

4

The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations is known as

A. situational attribution.
B. fundamental attribution error.
C. social attributions.
D. selective personality bias.

B. fundamental attribution error.

5

What is meant by implicit personality​ theories?

A. Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together
B. Personal theories that people have about which traits reasonably suit an archetype
C. Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics best fit an​ individual's demeanor
D. Personal theories that people have to determine whether an individual is good or bad

A. Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together

6

Considering their numbers in the​ workforce, women are severely​ under-represented in managerial and administrative jobs. This is an example of

A. multiculturalism and racism.
B. an increasingly diverse workforce and affirmative action legislation.
C. gender stereotypes.
D. workforce diversity and stereotyping.

C. gender stereotypes.

7

What are the consequences of perceived organizational​ support?

A. Increased workplace injury
B. Increased worker fatigue
C. Increased job satisfaction
D. Increased turnover

C. Increased job satisfaction

8

Which of the following is a training method to improve rating​ accuracy?

A. Scientific training
B. Technical training
C. Skill development
D. ​Frame-of-reference (for) training

D. ​Frame-of-reference (for) training

9

The impressions that we form of others are susceptible to a number of perceptual​ ________.

A. stereotypes
B. perceptions
C. biases
D. confirmations

C. biases

10

What is​ perception?       

A. The emotional intake of environmental data to determine appropriate responses
B. The irrational projection of an​ individual's ideas onto the environment
C. The process of interpreting sensory messages to provide order and meaning to the environment
D. The superficial analysis of the world intermingled with the subjective biases of the individual

C. The process of interpreting sensory messages to provide order and meaning to the environment

11

The difference between dispositional attributions and situational attributions is that the former is based on​ ________ and the latter is based on​ __________.

A. ​intellect; personality
B. ​intellect; environment
C. mood​ swings; context
D. ​situation; environment

B. ​intellect; environment

12

What is the perceptual system that defends us against unpleasant​ emotions?

A. Perceptual defence
B. Situation
C. Personality
D. Traits

A. Perceptual defence

13

Perception involves interpretation and the addition of​ _________ to the target.

A. nuance
B. bias
C. meaning
D. experience

C. meaning

14

​Bruner's model demonstrates three important characteristics of the perceptual process. What are​ they?

A. Selectivity, constancy, consistency
B. Differentiation, selectivity, consistency
C. Homogeneity, selectivity, consistency
D. ​Consistency, accuracy, distortion

A. Selectivity, constancy, consistency

15

Given the prevalence of the​ stereotypes, valuing diversity is not something that occurs automatically.​ Rather, diversity needs to be ​_______to have a positive impact on work behaviour.

A. eliminated
B. achieved
C. managed
D. encouraged

C. managed

16

Which of the following is a specific aspect of​ stereotyping?

A. Organizing perceptions around central traits
B. Primacy effect
C. Assuming that everyone in a certain category has all of the same traits
D. Projection

C. Assuming that everyone in a certain category has all of the same traits

17

Perceptions of trust are NOT related to which of the​ following?

A. Organizational citizenship behaviour
B. Job satisfaction
C. Organizational commitment
D. Focused attention on​ performance-producing activities

B. Job satisfaction

18

Attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations are known as​ _____________.

A. short-term situational factor
B. dispositional attributions
C. consensus cues
D. distinctiveness cues

D. distinctiveness cues

19

Primacy is a form of​ ______________ and its lasting effects illustrate the operation of constancy.

A. selectivity
B. justification
C. misunderstanding
D. opportunity

A. selectivity

20

Perception​ ____________ the complex and varied input received by our senses.

A. compares
B. sorts out and organizes
C. decodes
D. influences

B. sorts out and organizes

21

Job applicants interpret their recruitment experiences as cues or signals about unknown characteristics of an organization and what it will be like to work in an organization. This is called​ _____________.

A. signalling theory
B. organizational justice theory
C. perceived supervisor support theory
D. applicant theory

A. signalling theory

22

What tool can be used to reduce perceptual errors and biases when judging subjective employee​ performance?

A. Punishment for using bias in judging
B. Evaluations of only objective performance standards
C. Diversity training
D. Behaviourally anchored rating scale

D. Behaviourally anchored rating scale

23

Which stereotypes are​ pervasive, persistent, frequently​ negative, and often​ self-contradictory?

A. Gender stereotypes
B. Personal experience
C. ​Racial, ethnic, and religious stereotypes
D. Age stereotypes

C. ​Racial, ethnic, and religious stereotypes

24

What term refers to the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to​ others?

A. Stereotyping
B. Projection
C. Primacy effect
D. ​Self-serving bias

B. Projection

25

Which of the following is NOT a way to help organizations become more LGBT​ inclusive?

A. Implement diversity training to help dispel LGBT myths and stereotypes.
B. Assist these people to​ "fit in" with the mainstream corporate culture by​ "fixing" what is different about them.
C. Increase awareness by identifying and tackling organizational issues related to LGBT employees​ company-wide.
D. Create and enforce​ anti-discriminatory policies and practices and communicate these externally as well as internally to all employees.

B. Assist these people to​ "fit in" with the mainstream corporate culture by​ "fixing" what is different about them.

26

As​ actors, we are often particularly sensitive to environmental events. As observers of the same behaviour in​ others, we are more likely to invoke dispositional causes. This is known as

A. Consequences.
B. fundamental attribution error.
C. the​ actor-observer effect.
D. self-serving bias.

C. the​ actor-observer effect.

27

What three components combine to create​ perception?      

A. A​ perceiver, a​ projection, a target
B. A​ perceiver, a​ bias, a target
C. A​ perceiver, a​ situation, a target
D. A​ perceiver, a​ target, an outcome

C. A​ perceiver, a​ situation, a target

28

Julie meets a​ co-worker with a​ Master's degree from Harvard University. Julie categorizes her as smart and begins ignoring and distorting her poor performance at work. According to​ Bruner's model of the perceptual​ process, this an example of

A. categorization of target.
B. openness to target cues.
C. strategic cues.
D. cue selectivity.

D. cue selectivity.

29

Research has found that employees who have greater perceived organizational support have higher​ _______________, are less likely to be absent from​ work, and less likely to quit.   

A. job performance
B. risks of losing jobs
C. conflict with mismanagement
D. absenteeism

A. job performance

30

What are the three factors influencing perceptions of​ trust?

A. ​Ability, benevolence, integrity
B. ​Accountability, transparency, reputation
C. ​Ability, benevolence, reputation
D. ​Ability, transparency, integrity

A. ​Ability, benevolence, integrity