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Flashcards in Chapter 2 Deck (34)
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Behaviour that individuals learn through a​ continuous, immediate reinforcement strategy tends not to​ ___________ when reinforced is less frequent or stopped.

A. be accurate
B. facilitate senior management development
C. remain the same
D. persist



What theory emphasizes the role of cognitive processes in regulating​ people's behaviour?

A. Social cognitive theory​ (SCT)
B. Operant learning theory
C. Observational learning
D. ​Self-efficacy beliefs



People with low​ self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences than those who have high​ self-esteem. This phenomenon is known as​ _____________.

A. trait activation theory
B. behavioural plasticity theory
C. adaptive performance
D. neuroticism

B. behavioural plasticity theory


What is the term used for practice or experience that leads to a relatively permanent change in​ behaviour?

A. Self-esteem
B. Learning
C. Positive reinforcement
D. Negative reinforcement



What determines the whether a continuous and immediate or partial and delayed reinforcement strategy is​ used?

A. New projects
B. Problem employees
C. Change management
D. Occurrence of the behaviour of interest



According to the interactionist​ approach, organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions and​ ____________.

A. personality
B. trait activation
C. rewards
D. the situation

D. the situation


What is the term for taking the initiative to improve current circumstances or create new​ ones?

A. Proactive behaviour
B. Fundamental error
C. Reactive behaviour
D. Proactive actordashobserver effect



People who​ "wear their heart on their​ sleeve"

A. have difficulty resisting social pressure.
B. are high​ self-monitors.
C. are low​ self-monitors.
D. have low emotional stability

C. are low self-monitors


​Self-regulation requires​ ____________, ______________ and​ ____________.
A. performance​ reviews, extinction, and positive reinforcement.
B. ​imagination, learning and imitation.
C. self-observation, self-evaluation, and​ self-reinforcement.
D. ​Self-control, self-esteem, and​ self-confidence.



The four traits that make up a​ person's core​ self-evaluation include:

A. ​Self-esteem, general​ self-efficacy, locus of​ control, and emotional stability.
B. Extraversion, emotional​ stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.
C. ​Self-esteem, proactive​ personality, general​ self-efficacy, and extraversion.
D. Internal locus of​ control, high​ self-monitoring, high​ self-esteem, and positive affectivity.



Which category of learning content involves problem​ solving, critical​ thinking, and risk taking​ skills?

A. Practical skills
B. Intrapersonal skills
C. Interpersonal skills
D. Cultural awareness

B. Intrapersonal skills


Negative reinforcers​ ____________ the probability of behaviour.

A. lower
B. increase
C. eliminate
D. settle

B. Increase


Training and development programs are one of the most common types of​ ____________ in organizations.

A. punishment
B. behaviours
C. formal learning
D. employee recognition programs



Employee recognition programs are an example of     

A. delayed continuous reinforcement.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. positive reinforcement.
D. operant learning.

C. positive reinforcement


According to trait activation​ theory,

A. the interactionist approach to organizational behaviour is wrong.
B. personality traits lead to certain behaviours only when the situation makes the need for that trait salient.
C. ​"strong" personalities are preferred to​ "weak" personalities in organizational situations.
D. an individual must possess the required trait in order to be successful in a given organizational situation.



​________________ involves informal​ acknowledgement, attention,​ praise, approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual or group to another.

A. Performance feedback
B. Delayed reinforcement
C. Social recognition
D. Reward preferences

C. social recognition


Which factor in the​ Five-Factor Model of Personality considers the extent to which a person tends to be friendly and​ approachable?     

A. Emotional stability
B. Agreeableness
C. Openness to experience
D. Conscientiousness



Which of the following does not increase the effectiveness of​ punishment?

A. Implementing punishments immediately
B. Not rewarding unwanted behaviours before or after punishment
C. Inadvertently punishing desirable behaviour
D. Ensuring that the punishment is truly aversive

C. Inadvertently punishing desirable behaviour


What is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with their​ environment?

A. Attitude
B. Cognitive response
C. Perception
D. Personality

D. Personality


​__________ refers to beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task.

A. ​Self-efficacy beliefs
B. Self-control
C. ​Self-confidence
D. Self-esteem

A. Self-efficacy beliefs


Which of the following is a personality variable that refers to an​ individual's belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging​ situations?

A. Proactive personality
B. Negative affectivity
C. Positive affectivity
D. General​ self-efficacy

D. General​ self-efficacy


​__________ can be used to increase the probability of desired behaviours and to reduce or eliminate the probability of undesirable behaviours.

A. Socialist learning
B. Operant learning
C. Diversified learning
D. Referent learning

B. Operant learning


To reduce the probability of learned​ behavior, ____________ simply involves terminating the reinforcement that is maintaining the unwanted behavior.

A. punishment
B. extinction
C. negative reinforcement
D. criticism

B. extinction


These are the four primary categories of learning​ content:

A. Job-specific skills,​ knowledge, professional​ development, and technical competence.
B. Who employees​ are, what employees​ learn, how they​ learn, and different types of learning experiences.
C. Social​ norms, understanding company​ goals, understanding company​ expectations, and understanding company priorities.
D. Practical​ skills, intrapersonal​ skills, interpersonal skills and cultural awareness.

D. Practical​ skills, intrapersonal​ skills, interpersonal skills and cultural awareness.


What is the propensity to view the​ world, including oneself and other​ people, in a positive​ light?

A. Positive affectivity
B. Negative affectivity
C. Situational explanation
D. Dispositional explanation

A. Positive affectivity


Self-efficacy beliefs are​ _________ by​ one's experiences and success performing the task in question​ (performance mastery), observation of others performing the​ task, verbal persuasion and social​ influence, and​ one's physiological or emotional state.

A. exaggerated
B. unaffected
C. influenced
D. damaged

C. influenced


What does continuous and immediate reinforcement​ facilitate?

A. Fast learning
B. Downsizing
C. Persistent learning
D. Mentoring

A. Fast learning


Learning new skills and technologies to continually improve performance can be achieved through which of the following learning​ contents?

A. Practical
B. Cultural
C. Interpersonal
D. Intrapersonal

A. Practical


Managers must often alter reinforcement strategies over time to achieve which of the​ following?

A. Decreased reinforcement
B. Maintenance of behaviour
C. Control over employees
D. ​Employee's dependence

B. Maintenance of behaviour


Employees with higher GSE also have higher​ __________.

A. job satisfaction
B. job demands
C. ​job-related stress
D. ​job-related issues

A. job satisfaction