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What is an Organization?

A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of a group of people, which functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.


What does EBM stand for and what is it?

Evidence-based Managment
- EBM calls for organizational practices that are based on scientific evidence.


List 3 things EBM Increases?

1. predictability
2. odds of success
3. your value to an organization


Explain the Scientific Method

Hypotheses > Data > Verification > Theory >


Why do people often get Theories and Hypotheses mixed up?

Hypotheses: predictions that specify relationships between variables

Theory: explains why, how, and when variables are related


Independent > Dependent

Independent = Predictor

Dependent = Outcome
-Varies as a function of the independent variable


What are the two measurements of variables?

Validity: an index of the extent to which a measure truly reflects what it is supposed to measure.

Reliability: an index of the consistency of the data.


Do you want Low or High reliability?


Low/Less is bad and means more random error


Which of the two measurements of variables is more important?

Validity is more important because if you're not measuring what you need then the data isn’t useful. Validity usually provides approximately the same number.
ex. tape measure (errors may include hair, stance)

However, if you have neither measurement you have 0 research.


What are the two kinds of Validity?

Internal Validity: extent to which a researcher can be confident that changes in a dependent variable are due to the independent variable

External Validity:extent to which the results of a study generalize to other samples and settings


List 4 research techniques/design (that affect internal and external validity)

1. Case Studies
2. Observational: Participant, Direct
3. Correlational: Surveys, Interviews, Existing (Archival) Data
4. Experimental: Lab or Field


What is Personality?

The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment and how he or she feels, thinks, and behaves


What are the 3 approaches to personality research?

1. Dispositional
2. Situational
3. Interactionist


What is the difference of a strong and week situation?

In weak situations, roles are loosely defined, there are few rules and weak reinforcement and punishment contingencies. Personality has the strongest effect in weak situations.

In strong situations, the roles, rules, and contingencies are more defined. Personality has less of an impact in strong situations.


How to describe personality?
*The Big Five*


Neuroticism (Emotional Stability)
Openness to Experience


List some other key dimensions (outside the Big Five)

- Locus of Control
- Self-Monitoring
- Self-Esteem
- Positive/Negative Affectivity
- Proactive Personality
- Self-Efficacy
-Core Self-Evaluations: Self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control and emotional stability


What are the implications of employees’ personalities for organizations?

- Person-Job Fit: Fit between personality type and occupational environment is associated with satisfaction and turnover.

- Person-Organization Fit: Argues that people leave organizations that are not compatible with their personalities


What is Learning?

A relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of practice or experience


Give an example of...
Antecedents > Behaviours > Consequences

My manager shows me how to do a new task
> I do it right
> My manager praises me


What is the law of effect?

People repeat behaviors that bring them satisfaction and pleasure, and stop those that bring them dissatisfaction and pain.


List the Operant Learning Theory

- Positive reinforcement
- Negative reinforcement
- Punishment
- Extinction


What are some reinforcement schedules?

Continuous reinforcement – reward follows each display of behavior
Partial reinforcement – only some responses are rewarded
Lots of different schedules have been researched…


Factors the Influence Perception (simultaneously)

- The Perceiver: Attitudes, Motives, Experience, Expectations, Interests, Social Identity, Etc.
- The context: Time, Work setting, Social setting, Etc.
- The Target: Size, Background, Proximity, Similarity, Motion, Etc.


List the 5 common perceptual biases/errors

- Selective Perception: Tendency to “see things” based on our own frame of reference
- Primacy Effects: Tendency to rely on first impressions or cues
- Recency Effects: Tendency to rely on last impressions or recent cues
- Halo/Horn effect: Rating on one trait colors ratings on other traits
- Projection: Tendency to attribute one’s own thoughts and feelings to others


What are some consequences of Stereotyping?

- Can result in unfairness for individuals
- Can result in decreased organizational performance


What is Attribution Theory and its 3 items?

When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused (i.e., is it dispositional or situational)
- Distinctiveness: Does individual act the same way in other situations?
- Consensus: Does individual act the same as others in same situation?
- Consistency: Does the individual act the same way over time?


What are Attributional Biases/Errors?

- Fundamental Attribution Error: Tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about others.
- Actor-Observer Effect: The tendency for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behavior differently.
- Self-serving bias: Tendency to attribute our own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.


What are some Other Biases/Errors in Judgment?

- Sinister Attribution Bias: Tendency to see motives as being intentionally harmful
- Jumping to Conclusions Bias: Tendency to reach fast conclusions, often without considering all information
- Confirmation Bias: Tendency to only seek out confirmatory information, not disconfirming information


What are the 4 primary categories of what learning is?

- practical skills:
- Intrapersonal skills:
- Interpersonal skills:
- Cultural skills:


What are the 3 specific aspects to stereotyping?

- we distinguish some category of people
- we assume that the individuals in this category have certain traits
- we perceive that everyone in this category possess these traits