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Flashcards in Ch. 9: Basics of Nutrition Deck (113)
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1

What governmental agency regulates nutrition related affairs?

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

2

What are some of the effects of a poorly balanced diet?

* Skin disorders
* Fatigue
* Stress
* Depression
* Disease

3

What are Macronutrients?

* Nutrients that make up the largest part of the nutrition we take in.

* Three basic food groups: Protein, Carbohydrates, and Fats

4

What are Proteins?

Chains of amino acid molecules used in all cell functions and body growth.

5

What does the body use proteins for?

* Duplication of DNA
* Make muscle tissue
* Make blood
* Make Enzymes
* Make keratin for hair, skin, nails
* Make collagen and elastin

6

How many common amino acids are there? How many are essential and nonessential?

20 Common amino acids / 9 Essential and 11 Nonessential

7

Define: Nonessential

Amino acids that can be synthesized by the body and do not have to be obtained from the diet.

8

What are Carbohydrates?

Compounds that break down the basic chemical sugars and supply energy for the body.

9

What are Complimentary foods?

Combinations of two incomplete proteins that, together, provide all the essential amino acids and make a complete protein.

10

What is the most important Carbohydrate? Why?

Glucose, because it provides the majority of the body's energy.

11

What is ATP?

Adenosine Triphosphate

The substance that provides energy to cells and converts oxygen to carbon dioxide.

12

What are Mucopolysaccharides?

Carbohydrate-lipid complexes that are also good water binders.

13

What are Glucosaminoglycans?

Water-binding substance between the fibers of the dermis.

14

What are the three(3) basic structural carbohydrate divisions?

Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and Polysaccharides

15

Describe Monosaccharides

Carbohydrates made up of one basic sugar unit.
(Ex: glucose, fructose)

[ sweets, syrups, honey, fruits, vegetables ]

16

Describe Disaccharides

Sugars made up of two simple sugars such as lactose and sucrose.

[ cereals, breads, flour, potatoes, rice, legumes, pasta ]

17

Describe Polysaccharides

Carbohydrates that contain three or more simple carbohydrate molecules.
(Ex: fiber)

[ grain, bran, wheat, beans, apples, carrots, corn ]

18

What are the three(3) basic types of carbohydrates?

Simple sugars, Starches, and Fiber

19

Describe Simple Sugars

* Can be found in table sugar (sucrose)
* Fruit sugars (fructose)
* Milk sugars (lactose)

20

Describe Starches

Also called complex carbohydrates and are present in many vegetables and grains.

21

Describe Fiber

* Commonly called roughage and divided into two categories: soluble and insoluble.

* These carbohydrates aid in moving food particles from the digestive tract and into the colon.

22

A condition where blood glucose or blood sugar can drop too low without adequate carbohydrates.

Hypoglycemia

23

What are Fats?

*Also known as lipids, fats are macronutrients used to produce energy in the body

* The materials in the sebaceous glands that lubricate the skin.

* Organic compounds made up of a glycerol molecule and fatty acids.

24

What is the main fat in foods?

Triglycerides.

25

What are Triglycerides?

Fats and oils representing 95% of fat intake.

26

What are Phospholipids?

The main lipid in cell membranes.

27

If Triglycerides make up 95% of fat intake, what is the remaining 5%?

Phospholipids and Sterols

28

What are Saturated Fats?

A type of fat, in which the fatty acids all have single bonds. They have more rigid molecules and can cause hardening of the arteries. (processed food)

29

What are Monounsaturated Fats?

* Are more fluid molecules and are important for cell integrity and membrane phospholipids. (olive and canola oil)

30

What are Polyunsaturated fats?

* Liquid at room temperature and are more easily oxidized. (fish, corn, safflower, and nuts)