Ch. 6: General Anatomy & Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 6: General Anatomy & Physiology Deck (255)
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1

Define: Anatomy

The study of the human body structure that can be seen with the naked eye and how the body parts are organized and the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.

2

Define: Physiology

The study of the functions or activities performed by the body's structures.

3

Define: Histology

* Also known as Microscopic Anatomy.
* The study of the structure and composition of tissue.

4

Basic unit of all living things; minute mass of protoplasm capable of performing all the fundamental functions of life.

Cells

5

What is the basic structure of a Cell?

* Protoplasm
* Nucleus
* Organelle
* Cytoplasm
* Cell Membrane

6

Colorless, jellylike substance in cells; contains food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water.

Protoplasm

7

Is the dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell. It plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism.

Nucleus

8

Small structures or miniature organs with a cell that have thheir own function.

Organelle

9

Fluid within the nucleus of the cell that contains proteins and DNA; determines our genetic makeup.

Neucleplasm

10

The blueprint material of genetic information; contains all the information that controls the function of every living cell.

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

11

All the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the watery fluid containing food material necessary for cell growth, reproduction, and self-repair.

Cytoplasm

12

Part of the cell that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell.

Cell Membrane

13

What is Mitosis?

The usual process of cell reproduction in human tissue that occurs when the cell divides into two identical daughter cells.

14

A chemical process that takes place in living organisms whereby the cells are nourished and carry out their activities.

Cell Metabolism

15

Describe the Body's Metabolism.

The process of changing food into forms the body can use as energy.

16

What are the two phases of Metabolism and what are their functions?

* Anabolism: Is constructive metabolism, the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones. During this process, the body stores water, food, and oxygen for when these substances are needed most for cell growth and repair.

* Catabolism: The phase in which complex compounds within the cell are broken down into smaller ones. This process releases energy that is stored by special molecules to be used in muscle contractions, body secretions, or heat production.

17

A collection of similar cells that perform a particular function.

Tissue

18

What are the four types of Tissue?

* Connective
* Epithelial
* Muscle
* Nerve

19

What is Connective tissue?
Give an example.

Supports, protects, and binds together other tissues of the body.

(Ex: bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, fascia, and fat/adipose tissue)

20

A specialized connective tissue considered fat, which gives smoothness and contour to the body and cushions and insulates the body.

Adipose Tissue

21

What is Muscle tissue?

Contracts and moves the various parts of the body.

22

What are the nine major body organs and their functions?

* Brain: controls the body.
* Eyes: controls the body's vision.
* Heart: circulates the blood.
* Kidneys: excrete water and waste products.
* Lungs: supply oxygen to the blood.
* Liver: removes waste created by digestion.
* Skin: external protective coating that covers the body.
* Stomach: digests food, along with the intestines.
* Intestines: digests food along with the stomach.

23

What are the eleven main body systems?

1) Skeletal
2) Muscular
3) Nervous
4) Circulatory
5) Lymphatic/Immune
6) Endocrine
7) Digestive
8) Excretory
9) Respiratory
10) Integumentary
11) Reproductive

24

I am the physical foundation of the body; which consists of the bones and moveable and immovable joints.

Which body system am I?

Skeletal System

25

I cover, shape, and support the skeletal tissue; I also contract and move various parts of the body; consists of muscle.

Which body system am I?

Muscular System

26

I carry messages to and from the brain and control and coordinate all bodily functions. I consist of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

Which body system am I?

Nervous System

27

I control the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels.

Which body system am I?

Circulatory System

28

I protect the body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease-causing toxins and bacteria.

Which body system am I?

Lymphatic/Immune System

29

I affect growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the body; I consist of specialized glands.

Which body system am I?

Endocrine System

30

I change food into nutrients and wastes; I consist f the mouth, stomach, intestines, salivary and gastric glands.

Which body system am I?

Digestive System