Unit 1 essentials of organizational behavior management Flashcards Preview

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A scientific approach for discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior and for developing a technology of behavior change that takes practical advantage of those discoveries.”
Cooper

ABA

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Education/Instructional design
Developmental disabilities
Medicine
OBM

Sub-disciplines of ABA

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A sub-discipline of ABA, which is the application of the science of behavior...

Is guided by a single theory of human behavior and has historically emphasized identification and
modification of the environmental variables that affect directly observable or verifiable employee performance
.
Bucklin, Alvero, Dickinson,
Austin, & Jackson, 2000

OBM- Organizational Behavior Management

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National Society for Programmed
Instruction (now, the International Society
for Performance Improvement), 1962
 Brethower and Rummler publish first case
study, 1966
 Gilbert and Rummler form Praxis 1967/69
 Several other original consulting firms form,
1971-1973
 Many books and articles are written, 1970’s
JOBM, 1977
ABA, 1979
OB, SIG, 1982
OBM Network, 1987
FABA/OBM, 1988
Read Dickinson, 2000 for a more in-
depth review

A Very Brief History of OBM

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 Florida Institute of
Technology
 Queens College
 Western Michigan
University
 Appalachian State
University
 Southern Illinois
University
 University of Nevada,
Reno
 University of Kansas
 University of Maryland,
Baltimore County
 University of North Texas
 Jacksonville State
University
 West Chester University
 California State
University, Sacramento
 Simmons College
 Southeastern Louisiana
University
 The Chicago School of
Professional Psychology
 Florida International
University
 Central Michigan
University
 Spalding University

OBM Graduate Programs

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 Conferences

 One year printed subscription to JOBM
 Access to all issues of JOBM online

 OBM newsletter

 Research grant opportunities

 Discussion forums

OBM Network
www.obmnetwork.com

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Performance Management

Behavioral Systems Analysis (BSA)

Performance Based Pay

Behavior-Based Safety

Areas of Emphasis in OBM

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The management of individual employees or a group of employees through the application of behavioral principles

The process usually involves the analysis of antecedents and consequences supporting the behaviors of individuals or groups within the organization and Manipulating these variables to either decrease I’m productive or increase productive behavior performance.

Performance Management

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Involves outlining how the components of the system interact, including how each individual contributes to the overall functioning of the system (McGee, 2007).

Value: Allows us to analyze the organization outside the basic three-term contingency;
antecedents,behaviors, and consequences to identify:
Variables that can significantly impact individual and organizational performance.

Behavioral Systems Analysis (BSA)

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A (sort of) combination of PM and BSA.

Requires system-wide measurement:
• System that uses metrics (scorecards)
and goals to track employee performance.
• Performance is tied to pay through the scorecards.

Aligns employees goals with the organization’s goals

Performance Based Pay

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Focuses specifically on the analysis and
modification of work environments to reduce injuries and promote the safe behavior of
employees.

In contrast to other disciplines that approach
safety from the standpoint of mechanical or
structural engineering, behavior-based safety focuses on changing the behavior of employees so that injuries are reduced and safe performance becomes more common
.
Wilder et al., 2009

Behavior-Based Safety

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Increase safety, performances and quality

Improve work conditions

 Advertising

 Public Relations

OBM professionals may be consultants or in-house employees

Sample in-house titles:
Safety Coordinator
Director of Quality Assurance


What do OBMers do?

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Differences between consultants and
in-house employees are important even if You Are Not Going To Be an OBM Consultant because..

Most behavior analysts are not front-
line employees

Behavior analysts conduct assessments, write behavior plans, train staff, and supervise
implementation

Behavior plans are only as good as the implementation

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Behavior analysts require management skills

The principles of behavior influence us all. We should turn the light on ourselves

Plus, an additional skill set never hurts

Why study OBM

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 I/O Psychology (Industrial organizational psychology)

 Organizational Behavior

TWO major approaches That overlap with the goals and objectives of OBM

(There are several)

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Industrial :
Management perspective
(e.g., job selection)

Organizational:
Individual employee perspective (e.g., job satisfaction)

I/O Industrial organizational psychology

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Selection and placement,

Performance

Legal issues

Leadership

Employee stress

Mentoring

Turnover

I/O Areas of interest/Topics

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1. No unified theoretical orientation

2. Radical Behaviorism


1. I/O Theoretical Orientation

2. OBM

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1. Hypothetico-deductive , Dominated by statistical designs

2.. Inductive

1. I/O Research Methods


2. OBM

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A field of study that endeavors to
understand, explain, predict and change human behavior as it occurs in the organizational context.”

An eclectic field that draws on psychology, communication, management, sociology, cultural anthropology

OB
Organizational Behavior

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Differences between OBM and OB are similar to that of OBM and I/O

 Research methods
 Theoretical orientation
 Areas of interest

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Diversity,

Adaptability

International growth

group dynamics

politics and power

job stress

Generally , these programs are housed in business schools

Some areas of interest in OB:

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Six Sigma

Lean Six Sigma

Organizational Development

Other Fields

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A Clothing Retail Store in Trouble

Increasing competition

Profits are trending down over the past four quarters

New clothing lines and sales have not been successful

An Example

OBM, I/O and OB would likely be
concerned with the following example

Although each field would likely approach the problem differently

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Operations :
 Initial training is done quickly in a
classroom orientation
 Generally are left alone if you follow the rules
 Mistakes and underperformance are
punished through a progressive discipline model
 Top performers are promoted
 Annual reviews based upon hiring date
Annual bonus is paid out if the company does well
Annual raises based on performance
Employee of the month
Managers occasionally hold pre-shift
meetings

Outcome
 Customers wait for fitting rooms
 Store is cluttered
 New clothes are not displayed properly
 Long lines at the cashier
 Occasional cash register shortages
 There has not been a bonus in several years
 No employees have career plans that involve the store

Sound familiar? What is wrong here?
Can it be better?

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We will be targeting both results and
behavior

Sounds more Business friendly

Interested in Two Broad Categories
Behavior-Anything a living organism does

Result-What is left after a behavior (the employee does not need to be there for you to measure). You may know this as a permanent product

Note about behavior chains

Pinpoint (versus target behavior); OBM

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 Sweeping the floor
 Shooting a gun
 Typing
 Placing cans on a
shelf
 Painting cars

Result
 Floor is clean
 Score on a target
 Typed pages
 Stocked aisle
 Two cars with new
paint job

Examples of Behavior and Results
Behavior

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Much more common in business settings

Even “problems” are often just deficits of appropriate behavior

Acceleration

(Acceleration versus Deceleration)

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 will impact results

 Example: Increased rate of assembly
by team A
Result: More units produced

We are mostly interested in behavior.
There will be occasions when targeting results makes more sense

Sometimes selected that do not impact results
Example: Smiling at customers

A few recommendations from Braksick (2007):
• Identify the biggest opportunity
•Select a few behaviors that will have the greatest impact
•Don’t overwhelm with these

Identifying Pinpoints

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Senior management will often be able to identify the opportunity
(important goals)…
but they may not know what the pinpoint should be. Include other employees (managers, front line
supervisors, exemplars)

It is common for companies to try to target results
Ex: We need to increase sales. Each salesperson must sell more cars
Only targeting results can have unpredictable effects

Operational Definitions:: observable, measurable, and reliable. Two or more people should be able
to agree on whether or not the targets are occurring

Identifying pinpoints.