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Not common in OBM literature. May be due to :
• interventions are effective without Assessment,

• Rule-governed behavior

• OBM is concerned with “increasing”behavior vs. decreasing behavior

Functional Assessment


Records review

Informant assessments—interviews
with staff and managers

Descriptive assessment (e.g., ABC

Experimental analysis (structural,
functional analysis

Types of Functional Assessments


Planning documents

 Organization chart

 Industry productivity standards

 Industry conditions

 Competitors

 Customer list

 Product/services

 Employee handbook

 Job descriptions

Records Review: Historical Data -OBM


An analysis of events that precede
and follow a pinpoint

Conduct for both the undesired and
desired pinpoint

Two basic formats

The data sheet can be open-ended
or contain antecedents and
consequences common to the

Open ended requires more skilled
data collectors

A-B-C Analysis


Must observe behavior Occurring- problematic if major concern is a behavior that Rarely occurs.

Time consuming

targets Results

What makes A-B-C difficult?


Very Little in the literature.

Therrein,systematically varied five Antecedents in a restaurant to assess for influence on customer greeting;

Two of the five that occasioned high levels of greeting were combined into an intervention that increased customer greeting.

Note: To achieve a satisfactory increase a final feedback condition was necessary.

For experimental analysis ) in OBM



Advantage Experimental analysis – OBM


• time consuming

• requires Frequently occurring behavior,

• requires expertise.

Some disadvantages of experimental analysis are that:


do not rely on the behavior Occurring to determine the function, but they are likely the Least accurate.

interviewing staff members,


Two types of Interviews

Structured- follows a Script

Unstructured-interviewer develops a list of topics ahead of time, but informant answers determine which direction the interview takes

We will Use a structured interview.


Make sure the staff member is Relaxed. (start with ‘grand tour question’),

Reinforce their responding

Don’t allow for Attacks

Don’t use behavioral Jargon

Give them time to answer, general to specific,

End with: ‘Is there anything else you think is important?’

Some good interviewing techniques to


An interview assessment that covers Four areas that could contribute to performance problems.

One of the most Common assessment tool in the OBM literature.

Performance Diagnostic Checklist (PDC)


• Is there a written job Description

•Have the employees received adequate Instruction about what to do?

• Are the employees aware of the Rational of the behavior as it relates to the organization?
-If yes can they Explain the rationale?

• Are there job aides visible while completing the job?
-If yes, what are they?

Are there frequently updated, challenging, and attainable Goals that employees are comfortable with?
-If yes, do employees feel these goals are Fair? If employees say that the goals are NOT fair, what reasons have they stated?



If equipment is required, is it reliable?

Is it in good working order?

Is it ergonomically correct?

If no, what is?

Is the equipment and environment optimally arranged in a physical sense

 Are larger processes suffering from certain
incomplete tasks along the way (process

 Are these processes arranged in a logical
manner, without unnecessary repetition

 Are these processes maximally efficient?

 Are there any other obstacles that are keeping the employees from completing the task?

PDC Equipment and Processes


Can the employees tell you what they are supposed to be doing and how to do it?
 If yes have they mastered the task?

 If fluency is necessary, are they fluent?

 Can the employees physically/verbally
demonstrate completion of the task?

 If yes, have they mastered the task?

 If fluency is necessary, are they fluent?

 Do the employees have the capacity to learn
how to complete the task

PDC-Knowledge and Skills


Are they delivered contingent on the task?
If so, provide examples of the consequences.

Are they Positive or negative
Are they Immediate , Frequent

Are there Premack Reinforcers?
- If yes, what reinforcers are used?

Do the employees see the effects of their performance?
- if yes, How? Are they natural Arranged?

Supervisors should deliver them. Best if they are available.
- Direct or indirect Feedback

Is there performance monitoring?
- If yes, self-supervisor direct (verbal)
supervisor indirect (written)

Is there a RESPONSE EFFORT associated with the performance?

Are there other behaviors competing with the
desired performance?



Sample uses from the literature

 Franchise restaurants

 Ski shops

 Coffee shops

Implementation generally delivered to managers and

In larger organizations, or in a business with multiple sites it can be delivered to relevant managers and
sample staff



If the PDC shows Decrements in

-Keep in mind:
• role of antecedents. They don’t function independently of the consequences.

• Few examples of effective antecedent only interventions

An antecedent intervention consists of manipulations before the behavior occurs.


broadly defined as
antecedents that encourage
engaging in a task

 Smiley faces

 Have you washed your hands?

 Remember to clock out for breaks

Job Aides—

“Are there Job Aides Visible While
Completing the Job?”


Highly detailed set
of instructions on what is expected
Can be:

 A memo

 Checklist

 Meeting/workshop

Task Clarification:

PDC Antecedent Interventions


-A list of activities in sequential order that need to be completed
-Conduct a task analysis of a task and place the tasks in order of occurrence

Found to be successful with simple and complex tasks. Perhaps especially useful for complex jobs:
 Pilots
 Physicians

Antecedent Interventions



Clearly identify when to use it

Simple wording

Not too lengthy

One page

Test them out first

The Checklist Manifesto


An antecedent that describes an expected level of performance. That is, what is required by the

Sometimes include timelines

Employees need to know what is

In a PM-designed business, it signals when reinforcement can be obtained—not that punishment is available for failing to make the goal



Difficult , yet obtainable
• Stay away from stretch goals

Under the control of the employee

Good goals


Create an ultimate goal and sub goals

Sub-goals allow for the shaping of behavior so that employees can contact reinforcement

Small reinforcers for the sub-goals

Large reinforcer for the ultimate goal

Lots of verbal praise for increasing performance

if the goal is much higher than current baseline levels


Too easy, too hard?
Watch for new problems arising from an increase in behavior (out og paper)?

quality of the performance? Consider adding qualifying statement

Increase requirements when met for several
consecutive sessions

Make sure employees have contacted reinforcement before increasing

Do not reinforce lower ones once a new, higher one has been set

Keeping an eye on your goals


Patterns will likely be different if
introducing new behavior or setting a
goal for a long-standing behavior:

-Slow and steady
- Seep increase followed by leveling off
- Slow increase followed by steep increase

Patterns of Increasing Behavior


Can the employees tell you what they are supposed to be doing and how to do it?
-If yes have they mastered the task?

 If fluency is necessary, are they fluent?

 Can the employees physically/verbally
demonstrate completion of the task?
-If yes, have they mastered the task?

 If fluency is necessary, are they fluent?

 Do the employees have the capacity to learn how to complete the task?

PDC-Knowledge and Skills

Training (and is a common solution to many organizational problems. Many times the problems are due to an environment without properly aligned antecedents and consequences

Training is an antecedent intervention and shouldn’t be expected to solve these types of problems.

Very expensive and time consuming


Classroom-An instructor teaches a
group of individuals typically by lectures, worksheets, tests, and occasionally role-play/rehearsal

Behavioral Skills Training (BST)-An instructor teaches skills using verbal antecedents, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback

Select the training that makes the most sense in terms of:
 Number of staff to be trained
 Is opportunity to practice in real-life
essential (e.g., CPR)
 How often will they use the information

Types of Training


-Many people can be taught at once

-: Questionable retention/generalization, limited ability to practice skills

Useful for:
-Large number of employees (initial training)
- A lot of information to teach (be careful)

Classroom Training- OBM