Unit 3 leadership, ethics and ineffective management practices Flashcards Preview

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A definition by Daniels and Daniels (2007) states, “

A person that establishes Conditions that bring out the Best in employees”.

-does not state that a leader is the boss
- can be a front-line employee

Manager and leader are not synonymous terms

As stated by Geller (2002):

“…managers hold people accountable, whereas leaders inspire people to feel responsible”


A Leaders


Their Job is to get employees to work on behalf of the company when nobody else is present.

This is why anyone from employees to the CEO can be ....



Most are judged by strange criteria:
 How successful is the company?
 Did the company grow?
 Did she leave a legacy?
 Is she charismatic?
These definitions rely on results, but
results as the only measures for employees
are not recommended, and the same goes for leaders
These measures also fail to assess our definition of leadership (i.e., your company can be successful with a poor leader, for a while)

Measuring a Leader


 Employees work hard for the leader

 Employees sacrifice for the leader

 Employees correct others who engage in counterproductive behavior

 Employees set their own goals based off of what the leader would approve

Promote desire of the behaviors

leaders promote.,

Daniels and Daniels


Leaders behavior can be measured
(everything can be measured)

We are more concerned with how to
effectively lead

Should spend time pairing them selves with reinforcement

 Have the employees teach you something (Daniels and Daniels, 2007)

 Personally deliver reinforcers for performance

 Do a task for an employee

 Ask for explanation of good results
(Daniels and Daniels, 2007)

Measuring a Leader


Reinforcing others tends to increase
their rate of delivering reinforcers

If you are on top of an organization, you must reinforce managers, Specifically, reinforce managers when they reinforce others

Leaders must remember the matching Law

Leadership and Reinforcement


Focusing too much on an activity and not the ultimate mission

Activity trap-


To achieve all of our goals a leader
must convince the employee that their job is important and that their performance is needed

This can be done by companies having a…

All companies should have one

This statement is the ultimate goal of the organization (Malott, 2003)

Concise statement explaining why the organization exists

Mission Statement


 Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to
students, educators, creative professionals and consumers around the world through its innovative hardware, software and Internet offerings

 YouTube’s mission is to provide fast and easy video access and the ability to share videos frequently

Mission Statement Examples


Activity trap-

Focusing too much on
an activity and not the ultimate mission

Organizational myopia-

To lose sight of the purpose of the organization

Problems with an Unclear Mission
(Malott, 2003)


The leader’s challenge is to make it
clear how the behavior of the employee relates to the mission

Reinforcement should be tied to mission related behavior

Leaders and Mission Statement


 They understand the importance of their job as it relates to the mission

 Receive reinforcement for engaging in behavior that helps achieve the mission

 Face-to-face contact

 Have a leader that is paired with reinforcement

 Have a leader that follows through on contingencies

 Allow employee behavior to influence your behavior

An employee becomes invested in
their work when:


Required to change employee behavior from time to time:
New initiatives may be introduced to move the organization forward

New initiatives generally come from
top echelons of the company and care must be taken when introducing to employees



Challenges-difficulty with being a leader


A leader must keep the mission in mind and change direction when needed:

Represents one of the largest challenges for leaders: ........

Matching law again!

Employees must realize that the change is to keep with the mission and that their performance is

getting employees to stop what they are
doing and start something else



change the allocation of reinforcers

Daniels and Daniels (2007) suggest

May be a time for tangibles

Employees with a history of initiatives as an opportunity to contribute and be recognized will likely be okay with the shift

From Geller (2002)
 Provide rationales for requests
 Involve employees in decisions (customization of goals)
 Provide choices

The key for new initiatives is to


In rare cases employees work
without the aid of others

Often, teams of employees are required to work together

This may be especially true when new initiatives are launched

Think back to working in a team in school

If you didn’t like it that’s because you were doing all the work

Working as a team doesn’t mean you reinforce the ‘team



Reinforcement should be allocated to
employees equitably

Make sure duties are assigned equally and that you can track which
members of the team are

Teamwork- Some solutions for problems


Some companies require .......by their design, but all companies can benefit from it

Input from front-line employees can
be vital—employees are closer to the
‘problems’ than we are as leaders

Employees can become invested in
the mission by contributing ideas that
are implemented



generating new ideas, generating a variety of ideas, etc. Whatever the definition it involves behavior—not an unalterable trait

We can reinforce behavior and increase creativity, but this is nothing new (Glover & Gary, 1976)

What is creativity?


Set the occasion

Reinforce behavior-not results

Don’t fall into the success-only trap

Increasing Creativity


Just One View

The study of ethics includes a number of opinions

I will pull information from OBM and other sources and give my opinion on several topics related to business and ethics

You may draw your own conclusions based upon the material and subsequent study



From Cooper, Heron, and Heward

 “refers to behaviors, practices,
and decisions that address three basic
and fundamental questions:
what is the right thing to do?
What is worth doing?
What does it mean to be a good behavior analyst?”



The Cooper, Heron, and Heward
(2007) is a practical definition of

We will restrict ourselves to applied
ethics in OBM

The field of ethics contains other
branches of study (e.g., meta-ethics)



There are many ethical companies
that are profitable

There are also companies that are
profitable and engage in less than
ideal ethical behavior

Ethical Businesses


But it is still not uncommon to hear
about one company being more
ethical than another

Ethics in a company is determined by
the behavior of the employees

That means, even small ethical
problems decrease the overall ethical
presentation of your company

An Organization is not a Living


Not many people begin by engaging
in unethical behavior

But, employees may not be punished
by organizations for making
decisions that generate profit

Slippery Slope


Many companies may manage employees in a manner that is ineffective and leads to a dissatisfied workforce

If OBM focuses on positive reinforcement isn’t that always an improvement?

In fact, isn’t the focus on observable behavior an improvement over any system that views employees as full of unalterable traits?

This deserves closer scrutiny

OBM is Inherently Ethical?


Many of the the ethical responsibilities espoused by the BACB will generalize easily to OBM

Some will be more difficult

Ethics in Behavior Analysist


Guideline 6.01 Job commitments
- see Code 1.04c Integrity

Guideline 6.02 Assessing employee interactions
-Code 3.01a Behavior analytic assessment

Guideline 6.03 Preparing for consultation
- Code 2.01 Accepting clients

Guideline 6.04 Employees’ interventions
-Code 2.02 Responsibility

6.05 Employee health and well being

6.06 Conflicts with organizations

BACB Ethical Standards


Advantage of pay for performance

Necessity of safety

What about a task clarification, feedback and public posting intervention for groundskeepers?

If it increased their behavior are they happy?

Who Benefits?