ASR Unit 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ASR Unit 3 Deck (26)
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1

ASR #1
 Which of the following is not a good
measure of leadership:
a. The degree to which employees set
goals that the leader would approve
b. How hard the employees work for the
leader
c. How much employees sacrifice for the
leader
d. How much money the company earns

d. How much money the company earns

2

ASR #2
Leaders come from:
a. Senior management
b. Front-line employees
c. Supervisory staff
d. All of the above

d. All of the above

3

An activity trap:

a. Occurs in every organization

b. Is the result of a well-defined mission

c. Occurs when employees work hard but not toward the mission

d. Is essentially escape maintained behavior

c. Occurs when employees work hard but not toward the mission

4

ASR #4
Employees follow leaders when:
a. Leaders are paired with
reinforcement
b. The leader leaves them alone
c. The leader mandates success
d. All of the above

a. Leaders are paired with
reinforcement

5

ASR #5
Teamwork is problematic when:
a. Reinforcement is shared by the
group
b. The goal is well-defined
c. Reinforcement is delivered to
individual members
d. Individual performance is being
tracked

a. Reinforcement is shared by the
group

6

ASR #6
 The largest problem with new initiatives
is:
a. Preventing too much focus on the new
task
b. Is getting employees to change over to new schedules of reinforcement
c. Coordinating the efforts of the
employees
d. All of the above

b. Is getting employees to change over to
new schedules of reinforcement

7

ASR #7
 The Cooper, Heron, & Heward (2007)
definition of ethics does not include:
a. Do the right thing
b. What is worth doing
c. What is the right thing for the
practitioner
d. What does it mean to be a good
behavior analyst

c. What is the right thing for the
practitioner

8

ASR #8
 The following statement: “OBM focuses
on positive reinforcement and so is
inherently ethical” is problematic because:
a. It oversimplifies ethical considerations
b. It fails to account for process disconnects
c. It fails to account for the use of negative reinforcement
d. The statement is not problematic

a. It oversimplifies ethical considerations

9

ASR #9
 I’m hired by a company alongside another consultant. We both implement different initiatives at the same time. Performance
improves, when asked by management about
the change I should:
a. Assume it was likely my intervention
b. State that I can’t be sure what was
responsible for the change
c. Say that it is a violation of my ethical code
to work alongside another person
d. Downplay the effects of the other
consultant

b. State that I can’t be sure what was
responsible for the change

10

ASR #10
A company likes your intervention but
the data show no change in the pinpoints. You should:

a. Renegotiate your contract
b. Withdrawal immediately
c. Show them the data and recommend changes
d. Nothing, it is their decision

c. Show them the data and recommend changes

11

ASR #11
We can integrate ethical procedures
in a company by:
a. Reinforcing ethical behavior
b. Including ethics into reviews
c. Retain ethical employees
d. All of the above

d. All of the above

12

ASR #12
 Which of the following is not a factor when
evaluating cultural practices:
a. Availability of resources in a given
culture
b. Whether or not you can carry out your
commitment
c. Whether or not you can change the
cultural practices
d. Whether or not you could work in similar
situations within the culture

c. Whether or not you can change the
cultural practices

13

ASR #13
 An externality is:
a. The aggregate product produced by
a company
b. The cost a companies actions have
on society
c. Estimated profit margin for a product
d. Measure of a companies positive
impact on society

b. The cost a companies actions have
on society

14

ASR #14
 Moral nudging may best be defined as:
a. Weighing ethical behavior against
potential for profits
b. Ignoring ethical problems that are
not large issues
c. Insisting on ethical behavior
d. Using resources to encourage
ethical behavior

d. Using resources to encourage
ethical behavior

15

Rohn, et al. Study;
Internal theft accounts for significant portion of losses
Setting: Real store suffering from cash shortages
Participants: Customer service reps responsible for ringing up customers

Functional assessment conducted
Equipment-When more than one
participant was working they were each assigned a register
Consequence-Daily individualized feedback on overages or shortages
 Mean cash register shortages
Baseline 1= $2.27
Intervention 1= $ .06
Baseline 2= $7.78
Intervention 2= $ .1

Rohn study

16

Participants: Order selectors in
distribution centers
Mistakes in filling orders at distribution centers is costly
Audits as a quality control method
DV: Mean number of audits per week by 10 auditors at five distribution centers

Examined packing errors as calculated by picking mistakes divided by total picks
Switching from paper and pencil scans to automated scan that provided immediate feedback
increased the number of audits completed at test sites

Because more audits were completed, more mistakes were found
Results of the intervention suggested $20,000 annual savings could be realized in each distribution center

Goomas (2012)

17

Point out a troubling scenario in human service organizations: the need for additional compensation is high while funds are relatively low
The authors state that performance feedback may be used to increase performance but may not be
satisfactory alone
They point out that a lottery system tied to performance may increase performance without significant financial strain
Participants were three direct-care supervisors
DV: percent of paperwork completed by staff members
Lottery: three tickets to supervisor with highest percentage, two to next highest, one to last
 Weekly drawings for $50 cash prize
 Paperwork completed in two separate feedback conditions but largest increase seen when the lottery added

Cook and Dixon (2005)

18

Having cash on hand is a priority among many businesses
In essence, money that is owed to you is money you don’t have
In 2006 a large telecommunications
company was owed over $600 million in outstanding payments
Goal for 2007: Increase intake by more than $50 million and decrease days sales outstanding by more than 8
Assessment: The author conducted assessments, management working sessions, and employee focus
groups
Intervention:
 Create a performance metric (scorecard)
 Weekly meetings to review goals
 Managers trained to give individual feedback
 Identification of top priorities (accounts out
the longest)
 Monthly group-level rewards for meeting goals
Results : In 2007…
 $76 million was collected
 Days sales outstanding was decreased
from 66.6 to 58.1 (8.5 days)

Rodriguez (2011)

19

Four female appointment
coordinators at an outpatient medical clinic

DV: Patient satisfaction survey scores revealed a 27.3% “good” or very good”
Goal of 50% in each of the following categories:
 Greeting
 Tone
 Closing
Analysis was conducted by observation and interview with manager (antecedents, knowledge,
equipment, and consequences)
Intervention:
Intervention:
 Job aid: Sample greetings, tone, closing in job area
 Goal setting: Greeting-75% Tone-100% Closing-50%
 Feedback: Twice weekly email feedback.
If goal was met, participants were allowed to select a reinforcer from a menu
Intervention was effective for all three measured components, but less so for the closing

Slowiak et al. (2006)

20

ASR #15
Conducted a functional assessment
on cash register shortages
a. Rohn, Austin, and Lutrey (2002)
b. Goomas (2012)
c. Scherrer and Wilder (2008)
d. Ludwig, et al. (2001)

a. Rohn, Austin, and Lutrey (2002)

21

ASR #16
Lowered days sales outstanding:
a. Rohn, Austin, and Lutrey (2002)
b. Goomas (2012)
c. (Rodriguez 2011)
d. Sigurdsson & Austin (2006

c. (Rodriguez 2011)

22

ASR #17
Used a lottery in a human services
setting
a. Rodriguez, (2011)
b. Cook and Dixon (2005)
c. Goomas, (2012)
d. Rohn, Austin, and Lutrey (2012)

b. Cook and Dixon (2005)

23

ASR #18
Occupational stress:
a. Results from exposure to aversive
stimuli
b. A single significant instance of
trauma
c. Mostly under the control of the
employee
d. Is not common

a. Results from exposure to aversive
stimuli

24

ASR #19
All of the following are known to be
stressors except:
a. Job insecurity
b. Management Style
c. Absenteeism
d. Unclear expectations

c. Absenteeism

25

ASR #20
Hackman and Oldham (1980)
suggested that occupational stress
may be decreased in all of the
following ways except:
a. Increase autonomy
b. Increase task significance
c. Increase feedback
d. All of the above

d. All of the above

26

ASR #21
Green et al. (2008) demonstrated:
a. OBM can not influence
occupational stress.
b. Jobs can be re-designed to
increase preference
c. Jobs can be re-designed to
decrease preference
d. OBM only changes behavior

b. Jobs can be re-designed to
increase preference