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What is the media audience like in traditional mass communications?

Communication to a large group or groups of people largely unknown to the sender of the message​


What is media literacy?

The process of interacting with and
critically analyzing media content
by considering its particular
presentation, its underlying
political or social messages, and its
ownership or regulation issues that
may affect what is presented and in
what form.


What is the study of signs and symbols?



What is framing and what does it rely on?

The presentation and
communication of a message in a
particular way that influences our
perception of it.

It relies on... It relies on the notion
that we classify, organize, and interpret things into certain schema, or frameworks,
to simplify the complex.


What is media grammar?

The underlying rules, structures,
and patterns by which a medium
presents itself and is used and
understood by the audience.


What are the four types of media grammar formats in traditional media?

Print Media
Radio and Recorded Music
Film & TV
Digital Media


What are the grammar formats in print media like?


Chapters, Page #, TOC, Index ​


Sections, Photos, Graphic, Depth​


Design, Long Form (features), Ads,


What are the grammar formats in Radio and Recorded Music like?

Radio: Audio techniques ​

Volume changes, multi-tracks, edits, sound fx, Voice Over’s​

Recorded music: Stylistic conventions ​

Formats, Genres, Rhythms, Lyrical styles, Distinct sounds radio


What are the grammar formats in Film & TV?

The grammar formats are developed
an intricate media grammar based on editing, camera angles, lighting, movement,
and sound.

TV uses film techniques​

With smaller production budgets​

Different TV genres have different grammars​

ex: Sitcoms use laugh tracks​


What is media?

The main means of mass communication (broadcasting, publishing, and the Internet), regarded collectively.


What is are mergers and acquisitions?

Mergers and acquisitions are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities.


What are laugh tracks and where are they used in media?

A television sitcom device that
generates prerecorded laughter
timed to coincide w ith punchlines
of jokes.

They're typically used in sitcoms


What are actualities and how are they created?

Edited audio clips from interviews
with people.

I guess its self explanatory as to how its created


What is media bias?

A real or perceived viewpoint held by journalists and news organizations​

​That slants news coverage unfairly, contrary to professional journalism’s stated goals of balanced coverage and objectivity​


The main concern in the 1920's was the mediums depiction of what??

In the 1920s, much of the public became worried about
the depiction of sex, violence, and lawlessness in film.


What has researched revealed about media bias and media effects?

Research has shown that audiences can be quite active in interpreting and using media


Which is one of the few mass-communication formats to include frequent interaction between media producers or hosts and the audience?

Radio... talk- radio


What are the grammar formats in Digital Media?

Always evolving with communication devices
Includes Hyperlinks
Grammar of mobile devices & social media
Digital adopts from traditional forms


What are the audio techniques that impact the media grammar of radio and recorded music?

volume changes, multiple
audio tracks, actualities (i.e., edited audio clips from interviews
with people), sound effects, and voice-overs,


Media businesses have been among the most profitable of any industry, with profit margins typically around how much on an annual basis?

media businesses have been among
the most profitable of any industry, with
annual profit margins typically around
20 percent.


Media businesses are businesses just like any other. If they fail to make profit they are also doing a disservice to...

its private owners or shareholders
if it is publicly traded.


What is an echo effect?

A phenomenon that occurs when
people surround themselves with
on line voices that echo their own,
reinforcing their views and the
belief that those opinions are in the
majority when, in fact, they may
not be.


What is economy of scale?

"economy of scale" refers to the decrease in unit manufacturing cost that results
from mass production.


Why even concentrate media ownership?

Because there is a financial incentive, Media enterprises can reduce costs and increase profit by
becoming larger and reaching a larger market with their content.


Who coined the phrase, "the medium is the message" and what does he feel it means

Marshall McLuhan, he argued that the medium itself was more critical to our perception of the message than
its content or its manner of production.


What is media ecology?

The study of media environments
and their effects on people and


What 3 elements are needed for convergence?

The coming together of computing,
telecommunications, and media in
a digital environment .


The concentration of media ownership and consolidation of media companies in the US and globally has serious repercussions for what?

Greater concentration, of ownership, or fewer owners owning more media, results in less diversity of
media voices and the possible silencing of minority and non-mainstream views-a
disservice to the public.


What is a conglomerate and what role does it play in the media?

A conglomerate is the combination of two or more corporations operating in entirely different industries under one corporate group, usually involving a parent company and many subsidiaries. Often, a conglomerate is a multi-industry company. Conglomerates are often large and multinational.

Think Economic convergence.
Remember ABC and Disney, yaaaa

Also remember the journalists who have develop and shoot videos


What are second-tier media companies?

Fifty large media companies operating at the national or international
level, each doing more than $1 billion of business a year and can be considered a huge media power with an
array of business interests, although their revenues pale in comparison to the
big nine.