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What is the process whereby traditional media companies have grown fewer and much larger in the past fifty years through mergers and acquisitions?

Consolidation aka concentration of media ownership


What is time shifting? What are some benefits and downfalls for time shifting?

Recording of an audio or video event for later 
Some benefits: record a
live concert or sporting event so that it can be watched anytime, thereby turning
synchronous media into asynchronous media.

Some downfalls: World Star Hip Hop, Rebecca Black


What type of convergence is demonstrated when a show that is produced in the US becomes popular in another country?

Cultural Convergence


What was the first means of communication?

The telegraph, 1st message sent in 1844


What is the term for the merging of Internet or telecommunications companies with traditional media companies, such as Comcast with NBC Universal?

Economic Convergence


What is an example of technological convergence?

Turn media types into technological formats
Books ---> E-books
Internet is a strong example because newspaper to internet hahah LOL!!!


What are the 3 types of convergence? What are the definitions and examples for each?

Cultural Convergence: Media from one culture embraced by others

Economic Convergence: Economic convergence refers to the merging of Internet or telecommunications
companies with traditional media companies, such as Comcast with NBC Universal and Disney with ABC.

Technological Convergence: Technological convergence refers to specific
types of media, such as print, audio, and video, all converging into a digital media


What is convergence?

The coming together of computing, telecommunications and media in a digital environment​.


What is an oligopoly?

An economic structure in which
a few very large, very powerful,
and very rich owners control an
industry or collection of related


What is a "produser"? What two words is it a combination of?

Audiences who no longer are
simply consumers but also
produce content.

Produce + User

like pewdiepie


What is a filter bubble?

tailoring of news to one's specific interests; content we see based on our past online habits.


What is FOMO?

Fear of missing out, or the feeling
w hen we look at friends' Facebook
posts that they are doing more
exciting things than we are doing
and that we are m issing important
group interactions.


What are cookies and how do they work?

Information that a website puts on
a user's local hard drive so that it
can recognize when t hat computer
accesses the website again. Cookies
also allow for conveniences
like password recognition and


What is a primary characteristic of interpersonal communication?

Interpersonal communication is usually interactive, or flowing at least two ways,
and tends not to be anonymous. Think of chatting with a friend or a small group.


What is a hyperlink and what is its function?

a link from a hypertext file or document to another location or file, typically activated by clicking on a highlighted word or image on the screen.

Basically connects content to other content


What is digitization?

The process that makes media
computer readable


What are the four types of functions of mass communications? Why are they so important?

Surveillance: Primarily the journalism function
of mass communication, which
provides information about
processes, issues, events, and
other developments in society.

ex: disasters,
murders, or other unusual events

Correlation: Media interpretation ascribing
meaning to issues and events that
helps individuals understand their
roles within the larger society and

Entertainment has all three of these activities
(surveillance, correlation, and cultural transmission) but also involves the generation
of content designed specifically and exclusively to entertain.


What are the dangers of the entertainment function?

mass media encourage escapism and promote
lowbrow entertainment at the expense of high art.
Entertainment can also perpetuate certain stereotypes about various groups,
wittingly or unwittingly


What is the correlation function and why is it so important?

Correlation: Media interpretation ascribing
meaning to issues and events that
helps individuals understand their
roles within the larger society and

How people relate to the media.... So polling and shtuff


Who is the inventor of record for the telephone in 1876?

Alexander Graham Bell


What is viral marketing and why is it so important?

Promoting a product, service, or
brand on line through word of
mouth, usually via on line discussion
groups, chats, and emails.

has the potential to decrease corporate
power as it increases consumer control.... important because it can rapidly reach millions of online users, all without corporate promotion
or advertising dollars.


To eliminate past incompatibilities in the phone network, the U.S. government once granted which company a monopoly on the telephone system?



What were some incompatibilities of the phone system?

Local telephone
companies sold their own telephones, which would often not work with other
telephone systems. The issue of compatibility between systems is still seen today
in the form of competing computer operating systems, gaming systems, Internet
browsers, and other electronic devices, including ebooks and tablet computers.


Review recent trends of media ownership.

n 2010, AOL, long jettisoned from Time Warner,
bough t one of the most popular biogs on the web, The Hu(fington Post, yet another
illustration of how the boundaries between traditional technology companies
and media companies have blurred. Furthermore, the much-maligned Time
Warner Cable, the second-largest cable company in the United States, was purchased
in 2015 by Charter Communications for nearly $80 billion and re branded
as Spectrum.

The trend is clear: Analog and digital media are rapidly being consolidated into
the hands of a few very large, very powerful, and very rich owners, an economic
structure referred to as an oligopoly


Many newspaper journalists are now expected to write stories and shoot videos. What broader convergence issue does this demonstrate?

Economic Convergence... remember from the previous slide... boundaries between traditional technology companies
and media companies have blurred.


What was the first 24 hour newsnetwork?

CNN ( Cable News Network) was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, and was the first all-news television channel in the United States.


Review the hacking episode that Netflix experienced in 2016

hackers intercepted ten episodes
of season 5 of Orange is the New Black. Netflix refused to pay a ransom, so hackers released the
episodes more than a month before the planned June 9, 2017, release date.
The hacker or hackers, which go by the name darkoverlord, claim to have
episodes from other networks, such as Fox, ABC, and National Geographic. The
material seems to have been stolen from Larsen Studios, a production facility,
in 2016.


Who invented the Western world's first mechanical printing press?

Johannes Gutenberg


What are the differences between Asynchronous and Synchronous media?

Synchronous: Media t hat take place in real t ime
and require the audience to be
present during t he broadcast or
performance, such as live television
or radio.

asynchronous media : Media t hat do not require t he
audience to assemble at a given
time, such as printed materials and
recorded audio or video.


What screens is the most used in our multi-screened world?

The TV is still the first screen or the most used