T/F: Enrofloxacin (Baytril®) is a good first choice systemic antibiotic for treatment of deep pyoderma
Enrofloxacin is a good pyoderma drug, but really should only be used if no other antibiotic is a feasible option. Use of fluoroquinolones and 3rd generation cephalosporins increase risk for emergence of MRSA
What is the best way to diagnose eosinophilic granuloma complex?
confirm the lesion as part of eosinophilic complex
A dog presents with these lesions on its elbows and ears. What is your top differential?
What is the most common perpetuating factor associated with lick granulomas?
most common and important; treat empirically with anti-staph antibiotic (first tier) or base selection on C&S results
T/F: Culture and sensitivity (C&S) test is indicated in all cases of bacterial pyodermas
- Cytology shows cocci and rods or just rods
- Cocci but no response to right AB administered at right time at right dose
- Deep pyoderma
- Chronic AB/GC therapy
- GSD pyoderma
What systemic antibiotics are considered 1st tier for empiric therapy?
- 1st generation cephalosporins (Cephalexin)
- Amoxicillin/clavuanic acid (Clavamox)
What secondary infections are commonly seen associated with allergic dermatitis (atopy)?
Staph pyoderma, Malassezia, Otitis externa, lick granulomas
What is the most important diagnostic test to perform if you suspect acute otitis externa?
What is the drug of choice for systemic treatment of dermatophytosis?
- Treatment of choice 5‐10 mg/kg sid, or pulsed therapy: 1 month solid; then 1 week on/off.
- Systemic treatment should continue until 2 neg cultures 1 month apart
- Onychomycosis may require 6 – 9 months treatment
Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD) has a fairly characteristic clinical presentation, but what is a more definitive diagnostic test that can be performed?
flea antigen test
- Elevated serum flea allergen-specific IgE. A negative does not rule out FAD!
Intradermal flea allergy test - 3 injections:
- Negative control (saline)
- Positive control (histamine)
- Flea antigen
Which of the following are primary skin lesions?
- Macule, papule and ulcer
- Papule, wheal and plaque
- Nodule, abscess and erosion
- Plaque, erosion and wheal
- Crust, erosion and ulcer
papule, wheal and plaque
What are the two most commonly used topical antibiotic shampoos?
benzoyl peroxide and chlorhexidine
How does sebaceous adenitis typically present in short-coated dogs?
annular areas of scaling/alopecia (moth-eaten appearance) that sometimes coalesce; intermittent edematous swelling of muzzle, lips, eyelids
Psychogenic alopecia in cats most commonly affects these areas:
medial thighs, ventral abdomen, medial forelimbs
T/F: The vertical canal is the ideal site for cytology samples for diagnosing otitis externa
The horizontal canal is the ideal site
A 3 year old dog presents with pruritus. Which of the following tests is least indicated?
- Adrenal testing
- Skin scraping
- Flea comb
Do we use a superficial or deep skin scraping to diagnose sarcoptic mange?
superficial skin scrape
A DSH cat from a multi-animal household is presented to your practice with facial pruritus. On examination of superficial skin scraping, you see the following organism. What is your diagnosis?
Why do we use benzoyl peroxide to treat secondary pyoderma associated with localized demodex?
Benzoyl peroxide FLUSHES the follicles
T/F: There is strong evidence of efficacy regarding use of corticosteroids for treatment of allergic dermatitis (AD), and dexamethasone is recommended over prednisolone because of dexamethasone's long duration of action
There is strong evidence of efficacy regarding use of corticosteroids for treatment of allergic dermatitis (AD), but dexamethasone is not recommended over prednisolone, specifically because of dexamethasone's long duration of action
With prednisolone, you're able to have more control over the dosing due to the shorter duration of action
Most cases of generalized demodicosis that occur at 2‐4 years of age are likely undiagnosed ___________
T/F: Before performing a skin biopsy, it is important to prep and scrub the area to ensure you get a viable sample
You will not prep or scrubs for skin biopsies! You don't want to disturb the superficial layers of the skin
What is that?
Indolent ulcer (rodent ulcer)
What skin condition occurs secondary to hyperadrenocorticism and can be more quickly resolved with the use of topical DMSO?
T/F: Chin acne (chin pyoderma) in dogs is typically a deep pyoderma
- Signalment: young dogs (<1 year)
- Clinical signs: alopecia, non-painful, non-pruritic comedone, papules, discharge
- Mild cases: topical benzoyl peroxide
- Severe cases: topical benzoyl peroxide & systemic antibiotics
__________ is the most common underlying disease in adult onset generalized demodicosis
What is the underlying cause of Alopecia X?
Unknown (hence why it's called Alopecia X)
Recurrent flank alopecia, also known as __________ results in marked uni- or bilateral hyperpigmentation and is primarily seen in Boxers, English Bulldogs, and Airdales
Seasonal Follicular Alopecia
T/F: Culture may be indicated for surface pyoderma
Culture is never really indicated for surface pyoderma
What are the three major screening tests for diagnosing dermatologic conditions?
skin scrape, cytology, culture